Showing posts with label - - - Edo Bakufu -. Show all posts
Showing posts with label - - - Edo Bakufu -. Show all posts

4/28/2016

Tokugawa Yoshimune

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
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Tokugawa Yoshimune 徳川吉宗将軍
(1684 - 1751)




He was the first Shogun not born in Edo castle and brought up to become a Shogun. Thus his views on life were quite different from the Tokugawa Shoguns before him.
Since he lived with the common people in his youth in Wakayama, he knew about the problems of the poor and tried to improve their lot throughout his life.

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... the eighth shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, ruling from 1716 until his abdication in 1745. He was the son of Tokugawa Mitsusada, the grandson of Tokugawa Yorinobu, and the great-grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu.
... Yoshimune was from the branch of Kii. The founder of the Kii house was one of Tokugawa Ieyasu's sons, Tokugawa Yorinobu. Ieyasu appointed him daimyo of Kii. Yorinobu's son, Tokugawa Mitsusada, succeeded him. Two of Mitsusada's sons succeeded him, and when they died, Tokugawa Yoshimune, Mitsusada's fourth son, became daimyo of Kii in 1705. Later, he became shogun. ...
... In 1697, Genroku underwent the rites of passage and took the name Tokugawa Shinnosuke. In 1705, when Shinnosuke was just 21 years old, his father Mitsusada and two older brothers died. Thus, the ruling shogun Tokugawa Tsunayoshi appointed him daimyo of Kii. ...

Shogun (1716–1745)
Yoshimune succeeded to the post of the shogun in Shōtoku-1 (1716). His term as shogun would last for 30 years.
Yoshimune is considered among the best of the Tokugawa shoguns.

Yoshimune established the gosankyō to augment (or perhaps to replace) the gosanke. Two of his sons, together with the second son of his successor Ieshige, became the founders of the Tayasu, Hitotsubashi and Shimizu lines. Unlike the gosanke, they did not rule domains. Still, they remained prominent until the end of Tokugawa rule, and some later shoguns were chosen from the Hitotsubashi line.

Yoshimune is known for his financial reforms. He dismissed the conservative adviser Arai Hakuseki and he began what would come to be known as the Kyōhō Reforms.

Yoshimune also tried to resurrect the Japanese swordsmithing tradition. Since the beginning of the Edo period, it was quite difficult for smiths to make a living and to be supported by Daimyō, because of the lack of funds. But Yoshimune was quite unhappy with this situation, causing a decline of skills. And so, he gathered smiths from Daimyō fiefs for a great contest, in 1721.
The four winners who emerged were all great masters, Mondo no Shô Masakiyo (主水正正清), Ippei Yasuyo (一平安代), the 4th generation Nanki Shigekuni (南紀重国) and Nobukuni Shigekane (信国重包). But it didn't worked well to arouse interest, quite like tournaments in modern Japan.
Yoshimune also ordered the compilation of Kyōhō Meibutsu Chō (享保名物帳), listing the best and most famous swords all over Japan. This book allowed the beginning of the Shinshintō period of Nihontō history, and indirectly contributed to the Gassan school, who protected the Nihontō tradition before and after the surrender of Japan.

Although foreign books had been strictly forbidden since 1640, Yoshimune relaxed the rules in 1720, starting an influx of foreign books and their translations into Japan, and initiating the development of Western studies, or rangaku.

Ogosho (1745–1751)
In 1745, Yoshimune retired, took the title Ōgosho and left his public post to his oldest son. The title is the one that Tokugawa Ieyasu took on retirement in favor of his son Hidetada, who in turn took the same title on his retirement.
Yoshimune died on the 20th day of the 5th month of the year Kan'en-4 (July 12, 1751).
- source : wikipedia


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Tokugawa Yoshimune (1684-1751)
was a Japanese ruler, or shogun. He attempted most energetically to revitalize the Tokugawa shogunate after it began to encounter economic and other difficulties in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. ....
- source : yourdictionary.com/tokugawa-yoshimune-

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..... Yoshimune is known for taking a more proactive tack in effecting shogunate control over many facets of the economy of the realm. Among his many policies, he effected a dramatic increase in the domestic production of sugar, silk, and ginseng, three goods which had previously been heavily imported, as part of efforts to stem the outflow of silver from the country. He also imposed a variety of sumptuary laws, and granted authorization to merchant groups to form kabunakama, groups which paid the shogunate fees in exchange for monopoly rights to production and distribution of certain goods. .....
..... The ritual protocols and procedures surrounding Yoshimune's accession to the position of shogun are an oft-cited example of shogunal ritual, and in particular of shogunal proclamations (宣下, senge), the most important type of ritual in the Tokugawa Book of Rites (Tokugawa reiten roku).
- source : wiki.samurai-archives.com -

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Yoshimune installed the
meyasubako 目安箱 petition box
suggestion box / complaints box / Vorschlagskasten für Petitionen
sojoobako, sojōbako 訴状箱




Only he had to key to open it, thus hearing the voice of the people directly and giving them a chance to complain about their superiors.

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Petition box
The petition box was a process employed at various times and places, notably in Edo period Tosa han, to allow members of society, regardless of their status, to have their comments and suggestions heard by the lord.
..... The first shogun to implement a petition box system was Tokugawa Yoshimune.
He did so in 1721, after having overseen a similar system as daimyô of Wakayama han, installing the box in front of the hyôjôsho (judicial offices). Prior to this, people often petitioned the shogunate illegally, through petitions known as osso (direct appeals to high officials) and sutebumi (anonymous petitions left at the gates of the castle); the creation of a petition box allowed for a legal avenue for such grievances to be expressed.
While social commentary could be submitted into the shogunate's petition box easily enough, petitions which called for legal appeals could only be submitted in certain types of cases, where other legal avenues had already been tried. The petition box system was considered quite successful, however, and was not only maintained, but was expanded to Kyoto, Osaka, and Sunpu, and remained in place until 1868. A number of policy moves, such as the establishment of the Edo fire brigades, have been traced to suggestions made in petitions placed in the box. ....
- reference source : wiki.samurai-archives.com/index -

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Yoshimune established a public hospital at the garden in
Koishikawa 小石川養生所  Koishikawa Yojosho
with free treatment for all and a large herb garden for medicine.



... The hospital was established in 1722 by the shogun Tokugawa Yoshimune in the herb gardens of what is now the Koishikawa Botanical Gardens at the suggestion of the town physician Ogawa Shosen. The hospital offered its services only to the indigent. It was eventually merged into Tokyo University's medical school.
- source : wikipedia -


小石川養生所の開設


. - Edo 江戸 the Castle Town - .
Matsuo Basho at Koishikawa

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hanabi 花火 Fireworks after an epidemy

..... Yahei studied large-scale fireworks and showed his marvelous works at the Water God Festival in 1717. When the country suffered many deaths due to famine in Kansai (west) and cholera in Edo, the 8th shogun Tokugawa Yoshimune held a Water God Festival at Sumida River to console the souls of the dead, with Yahei’s fireworks.
This is said to be the beginning of Sumidagawa Fireworks that continues to attract millions of people in Tokyo today.
. HANABI 花火 Japanese Fireworks - Introduction .

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Along the new river banks and open spaces to protect from fire he had many cherry trees planted and thus supported the old custom of
hanami 花見 cherry blossom viewing and merrymaking.
He wanted to give the townspeople a chance to enjoy life.
The most famous spots are 飛鳥山 Asukayama, 御殿山 Gotenyama, Koganei and Mukojima.


飛鳥山 - 広重 Asukayama, Hiroshige


「飛鳥山花見」勝川春潮 Katsukawa Shuncho (1781 - 1788)
The ladies wore special Hanami Kimono for the occasion.

And the food was of course
. hanami bentoo 花見弁当 Bento lunch box for blossom viewing .


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In the early eighteenth century, shogun Tokugawa Yoshimune planted many cherry trees in the area and opened up the land for the enjoyment of the "Edokko" or citizens of Tokyo. The park was formally established, alongside Ueno Park, Shiba Park, Asuka Park, and Fukagawa Park, in 1873 by the Dajō-kan, as Japan's first public parks.
- source :wikipedia -



御殿山花見之図 - 広重 Gotenyama, Hiroshige

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To boost the coffers of the Bakufu, he encouraged the development of new rice fields -
shinden kaihatsu 新田開発 reclamation projects.
development program of newly cultivable lands / developing new farming land


source : edo/kaikaku/sinden
町人請負新田

He also initiated reforms for the use of koban 小判 gold money.

. shinden kaihatsu 新田開発 developing new farm land .
and the taxing system (nengu 年貢) for farmers

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. Tokugawa Muneharu 徳川宗春 (1696 - 1764) .

「増税派の吉宗」Yoshimune for more taxes
and
「減税派の宗春」Muneharu for less taxes

. kenyaku 倹約 frugality, thrift - Sparsamkeit .
. Buke shohatto 武家諸法度 Laws for the Samurai .
12 Samurai throughout the realm are to practice frugality.

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. takagari 鷹狩 hunting with hawks and falcons .
The hunting grounds of the Shogun

. Ohanajaya お花茶屋 Ohanajaya district Katsushika .
よ】 吉宗の 病治した お花さん Yoshimune no yamai naoshita O-Hana san
Hanafuda flower trump card for the letter よ YO - Yoshimune.


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Oka Echizen 大岡越前 - Ōoka Tadasuke 大岡忠相 
(1677 – February 3, 1752)
as a Japanese samurai in the service of the Tokugawa shogunate. During the reign of Tokugawa Yoshimune, as a magistrate (machi-bugyō) of Edo, his roles included chief of police, judge and jury, and Yamada Magistrate (Yamada bugyō) prior to his tenure as South Magistrate (Minami Machi-bugyō) of Edo. With the title Echizen no Kami (Governor of Echizen or Lord of the Echizen), he is often known as Ōoka Echizen (大岡越前). He was highly respected as an incorruptible judge. In addition, he established the first fire brigade made up of commoners, and the Koishikawa Yojosho (a city hospital). Later, he advanced to the position of jisha bugyō, and subsequently became daimyo of the Nishi-Ōhira Domain (10,000 koku).



..... Ōoka Tadasuke has been the central character in two jidaigeki television series. In one, Ōoka Echizen, actor Gō Katō played the lead. In the other, Meibugyō! Ōoka Echizen, Kinya Kitaōji played the same role.
In addition, series such as Abarenbo Shogun have portrayed Ōoka as an intimate of the shogun Tokugawa Yoshimune.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. Akasaka Hitotsugi choo 赤坂一木町 / 一ツ木町 Edo .
Around 1696, the residence of the city magistrate 大岡忠相 Oka Tadasuke Echizen no Kami was located here.
The 豊川稲荷 Toyokawa Inari Shrine in the compound is still there now.

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Yoshimune is well loved as a Jidaigeki hero, the

aberenbo Shogun 暴れん坊将軍 "The Wild Shogun".
He was rather large for his times and very strong, throwing huge Sumo wrestlers in the sand like nothing in his youth.



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Abarenbō Shōgun
a Japanese television program on the TV Asahi network. Set in the eighteenth century, it showed fictitious events in the life of Yoshimune, the eighth Tokugawa shogun. The program started in 1978 under the title Yoshimune Hyōbanki: Abarenbō Shōgun (Chronicle in Praise of Yoshimune: The Bold Shogun) who went after rogue Councillors and Daimyo who were abusing their power. After a few seasons, they shortened the first two words and ran for two decades under the shorter title until the series ended in 2003; a two-hour special aired in 2004, and then restarted from Oct. 13, 2013 at 7:00PM (Japan time) and still runs today. The earliest scripts occasionally wove stories around historic events such as the establishment of firefighting companies of commoners in Edo, but eventually the series adopted a routine of strictly fiction.

Along with Zenigata Heiji and Mito Kōmon, it ranks among the longest-running series in the jidaigeki genre. Like so many other jidaigeki, it falls in the category of kanzen-chōaku, loosely, "rewarding good and punishing evil."

Goyō toritsugi
The goyō toritsugi (御用取次) (his reform of the soba yōnin (側用人) was a Hatamoto person who scheduled appointments for the Shogun. He is generally a man of advanced years. In the first two casts, the character's name was Kanō Gorozaemon (played by comic Ichirō Arishima). Next came Tanokura Magobei (Eiji Funakoshi), and a few followed in the cast changes of the last years of the show.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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Jidaigeki (時代劇) is a genre of film, television, and theatre in Japan.
Literally "period dramas", they are most often set during the Edo period of Japanese history, from 1603 to 1868. Some, however, are set much earlier—Portrait of Hell, for example, is set during the late Heian period—and the early Meiji era is also a popular setting. Jidaigeki show the lives of the samurai, farmers, craftsmen, and merchants of their time. Jidaigeki films are sometimes referred to as chambara movies, a word meaning "sword fight", though chambara is more accurately a subgenre of jidaigeki. Jidaigeki rely on an established set of dramatic conventions including the use of makeup, language, catchphrases, and plotlines.
..... List of jidaigeki films
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


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. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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4/26/2016

Buke Shohatto Laws

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
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Buke shohatto 武家諸法度 Laws for the Samurai
Various Points of Laws for Warrior Houses
Laws for the Military Houses


. samurai, buke 侍、 武家 - Introduction .


武家諸法度の陰に柳生あり Yagyu in the Shadow of the Laws for Samurai
週刊江戸全国版 - 1020


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The Buke shohatto (武家諸法度 lit. Various Points of Laws for Warrior Houses), commonly known in English as the Laws for the Military Houses, was a collection of edicts issued by Japan's Tokugawa shogunate governing the responsibilities and activities of daimyō (feudal lords) and the rest of the samurai warrior aristocracy. These formed the basis of the bakuhan taisei (shogunate-domains system) which lay at the foundation of the Tokugawa regime. The contents of the edicts were seen as a code of conduct, a description of proper honorable daimyō behavior, and not solely laws which had to be obeyed.
By appealing to notions of morality and honor, therefore, the shogunate was able to see its strictures followed despite its inability to enforce them directly.



The edicts were first read to a gathering of daimyō by the retired shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu,
at Fushimi castle in the seventh lunar month of 1615. They had been compiled by a number of scholars in service to the shogunate including Ishin Sūden, and were aimed primarily at limiting the power of the daimyō and thus protecting the shogunate's control over the country.

Articles promulgated in 1615
01 The samurai class should devote itself to pursuits appropriate to the warrior aristocracy, such as archery, swordsmanship, horsemanship, and classical literature.
02 Amusements and entertainments are to be kept within reasonable bounds and expenses for such activities are not to be excessive.
03 The han (feudal domains) are not to harbor fugitives and outlaws.
04 Domains must expel rebels and murderers from their service and from their lands.
05 Daimyō are not to engage in social interactions with the people (neither samurai nor commoners) of other domains.

06 Castles may be repaired, but such activity must be reported to the shogunate. Structural innovations and expansions are forbidden.
07 The formation of cliques for scheming or conspiracy in neighboring domains must be reported to the shogunate without delay, as must the expansion of defenses, fortifications, or military forces.
08 Marriages among daimyō and related persons of power or importance must not be arranged privately.
09 Daimyō must present themselves at Edo for service to the shogunate.

10 Conventions regarding formal uniform must be followed.
11 Miscellaneous persons are not to ride in palanquins.
12 Samurai throughout the realm are to practice frugality (kenyaku).
13 Daimyō must select men of ability to serve as administrators and bureaucrats.

The 1615 edict contains the core of the shogunate's philosophy regarding samurai codes of conduct. Similar policies would be imposed upon commoners as well, reissued and reinforced many times over the course of the Edo period.. . .
The edicts were reissued in 1629, and again in 1635, by the third Tokugawa shogun, Iemitsu. ..... This year is also quite significant for the implementation of a number of policies which can be grouped under the term kaikin (maritime prohibitions), and which are sometimes referred to as the Sakoku Edicts.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

武家諸法度「寛永令」のおもな内容
- source : Japanese Wikipedia -


. Konchi-In Suuden 金地院崇伝 Priest Konchin Suden .
Isshin Suden 以心崇伝 (1569―1633)


. kenyaku rei 倹約令 laws regulating expenditures; sumptuary edicts .

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Articles promulgated in 1615
Buke shohatto: Promulgated in 1635
Buke shohatto: Later promulgations
- source : america.pink/buke-shohatto -


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Tour of Duty:
Samurai, Military Service in Edo, and the Culture of Early Modern Japan

By Constantine Nomikos Vaporis




The Laws for the Military Houses issued in 1629 were the first to designate Edo as ...
- source : books.google.co.jp -

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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4/25/2016

Edo Bakufu PowerPoint

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. Edo Bakufu articles .
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Edo Timeslip with PowerPoint



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. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .


. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

. samurai, warriour, tsuwamono, bushi 侍, 兵、武士、兵士 .


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4/14/2016

seppuku and harakiri

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
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seppuku 切腹 -- harakiri 腹切り ritual suicide

The shogunate executed criminals in various ways ...
Samurai were often sentenced to commit seppuku in lieu of these forms of punishment. Seppuku is a term of suicide for the samurai.
. Criminal Punishment in Edo .
- Introduction -

. Kiri-sute gomen, kirisute gomen 斬捨御免 or 切捨御免
literally, "authorization to cut and leave" - the body of the victim .

Punishment for the incorrect exercise of this right was severe. An offender could be beheaded without being allowed to perform seppuku and have his house abolished, meaning that none of his sons could succeed the title.

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seppuku (切腹 or せっぷく, "stomach- or abdomen-cutting") or
harakiri (腹切り, "cutting the belly")

is a form of Japanese ritual suicide by disembowelment.



It was originally reserved for samurai. Part of the samurai bushido honor code, seppuku was used either voluntarily by samurai to die with honor rather than fall into the hands of their enemies (and likely suffer torture) or as a form of capital punishment for samurai who had committed serious offenses, or performed because they had brought shame to themselves. The ceremonial disembowelment, which is usually part of a more elaborate ritual and performed in front of spectators, consists of plunging a short blade, traditionally a tantō, into the abdomen and drawing the blade from left to right, slicing the abdomen open.
1 Etymology
2 Overview
3 Ritual
4 Female ritual suicide
- - - 4.1 History
- - - 4.2 Religious and social context
- - - 4.3 Terminology
5 Seppuku as capital punishment
6 European witness
7 Seppuku in modern Japan
8 Notable cases
9 In popular culture
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

- - - - - some vocabulary - - - - -


funshi 憤死 indignation death, which is any suicide made to state dissatisfaction or protest
jigai 自害 suicide / jisatsu 自殺
junshi 殉死 seppuku at the death of one's master
jūmonji giri 十文字切り, "cross-shaped cut"
kagebara 陰腹, "shadow stomach" (variety of kanshi)
kanshi 諫死, "remonstration death/death of understanding", in which a retainer would commit suicide in protest of a lord's decision.
kappuku 割腹 - Seppuku
oibara, tsuifuku 追腹 or 追い腹 Seppuku at the death of one's master



source : blogs.yahoo.co.jp/eraser1eraser

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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

蒲生下野守の家来に切腹する者がいて、非常に強勢な者は肝臓に毛が生えていると聞くので確かめてほしいと言う。切腹した後で確かめると、本当に毛が生えていたという。
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ある者が商い聖を殺して金を奪った。後に妻をむかえ子をもうけたが、生まれた子供は殺した聖そっくりだった。やがて子が成長するとその子の不作法の為切腹を命じられた。

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jina 人痾,fukuyoo 服妖 in Kanto
天明の頃、関東方面で眉を抜いて薄く残し、かたい眉と言ったり、鬢を薄くして疫病髪と名付け、また赤い帯をして腹切り帯と言ったりする事が流行った。それが京にもうつりそうになった頃、関東の田沼山城守某が城中で佐野善左衛門某に殺され、佐野が切腹するなどの事件が発生した。これは中国史書にある人痾というものだ。

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Minamoto Yorimasa no kubi 源頼政の首
源三位頼政が扇の芝で切腹した時、首が重く感じるところに葬ってほしいと郎等に言い残した。郎等はその首を持って東に行き、古我で休憩したところ首が重くて上がらなくなったのでそこに葬ったという。


................................................................................. Akita 秋田県

takekomasama 竹駒様 TakeKoma Sama

In 仙北市, 現在堀之内に住んでいる田口イシノ氏は石を占いの道具にしているのでイシガミサマともいう。角館にはイシノ氏の姉のカミサマがいる。この人は27、8才のころから目が見えなくなったが、神様や仏様が飛んでくるのが見えるようになった。殿様や切腹した侍がくるとその真似をする。それが治らないので、神様におつかわれするようになればなおるといわれた。その1ヵ月後に竹駒様がついたので、神社に参拝しておつかわれするように決めた。すると2週間で目が開いて、3週間ですっかり見えるようになった。


................................................................................. Aomori 青森県

zashikiwaraji ザシキワラシ
In Sannohe 三戸郡, いまはもうとりこわされた、大きな屋敷だった堀川家の座敷にはザシキワラシがでた。昔座敷で切腹した人がいて、その血が板戸についていたという。上段の間で客が寝ているとトントン音がしたり、人の気配がしたりして、ザシキワラシが寝かしてくれないので、話者の家に夜中泊めてくれと来る客人もいたという。


................................................................................. Fukui 福井県

kitsune 狐 Fox
ある武家で、不都合を起こした為に切腹が命じられた。切腹を命じにやって来た役人は、狐が化けていたので、犬がほえると正体をあらわして逃げた。別の家は稲荷さんの申し子だと言われていた。この2つの家は両方とも断絶した。


................................................................................. Gunma 群馬県

Some fields were ritually polluted and unfit for cultivation.
Amont the pollutions was a field where someone had commited Harakiri 腹切り畑.
The other reasons are
忌み田,忌み畑,ぼんでん田,さかさ田,ジャンボン田,底なし田,位牌田,鳥居田,たたり畑,かかとり畑などと呼ばれる。

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甘楽郡

o-Kiku no tatari お菊の祟り curse of O-Kiku
小幡の殿様が侍女の菊ばかりを寵愛したので他の侍女や奥方の恨みを買い、菊が殿様に差し上げる御飯に針を入れられた。殿様は怒って菊を責め、蛇の入った樽に入れ、宝積寺の池に投げ込んだ。小柏源介という侍が悲鳴を聞いて樽を開けると、瀕死の菊が出て来た。菊は「このご恩にお家に蛇の害は無いように致します」と言って事切れた。お菊の母が「お菊が無実なら芽が出ろ」と池の辺に炒りゴマをまいたら、芽が出た。お菊の祟りで小幡家に戦死や切腹の沙汰が続いたので、宝積寺に碑を建てて供養した。


................................................................................. Hiroshima 広島県

nanafushigi 七不思義
小学校2年の頃、日が暮れてから父親に背負われ陶晴賢が切腹した所を通っていると、父親の髪が急に1本立った。どうしたのかと父親に尋ねると父親は言葉を制して真言を唱えた。すると髪は寝た。後で聞くとそれがみさきというものだった。


................................................................................. Ibaraki 茨城県

bodaiju no tatari ぼだい樹のたたり curse
In 常陸太田市
平将門の乱で敗れた武将のお姫様が奥州に逃げる途中で死んでしまい、7人の家来もそこで切腹した。親鸞上人が哀れがり、そこにぼだい樹を植えた。それが話者の家のぼだい樹で、枝を折ると災難があると言う。ある人がぼだい樹から蜂の巣をとったら、話者の妹がひきつけをおこした。行者にお祓いしてもらったら治った。


................................................................................. Kanto 関東方面

天明の頃、関東方面で眉を抜いて薄く残し、かたい眉と言ったり、鬢を薄くして疫病髪と名付け、また赤い帯をして腹切り帯と言ったりする事が流行った。それが京にもうつりそうになった頃、関東の田沼山城守某が城中で佐野善左衛門某に殺され、佐野が切腹するなどの事件が発生した。これは中国史書にある人痾というものだ。


................................................................................. Kochi 高知県

Shichinin misaki 七人みさき
安芸郡北川村では、山に働きに来ていた若者7人が小屋で戯れている時、1人に山刀が刺さって死に、ほかの者も切腹して死んだ。その墓が最近まであったが、神様にして一所にかためた。七人みさきの本家は北川村の野川ではないかという。


................................................................................. Kumamoto 熊本県

neko 猫 cat
In 人吉市, あるお坊さんが謀反の疑いで切腹させられたが、無実であった。その妾のひとりがそのことを恨みに思って、猫に「仇はとっておくれ」と願いを込めて、その猫を道連れに自殺した。以後、切腹を命じた相良侯の家では不思議なことが起きたので猫寺を建てた。


................................................................................. Mie 三重県

.......................................................................
Hyoouemon gitsune 兵右衛門狐 the fox

桑名藩の釘貫兵右衛門が夫婦狐の穴を壊した。翌日登城する途中、遅刻を咎める藩主の使い来て兵右衛門は切腹した。後に狐の復讐であることが分かり、藩主は祟りを恐れ狐を笠田野に祀った。維新の頃、孫右衛門が夫婦狐の1匹を撃ち殺し、孫右衛門はまもなく死んだ。

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. Jizoo 地蔵 Jizo Bosatsu of 大王町 Daio Town .
Shima 志摩市


................................................................................. Nagano 長野県

yamainu 山犬 wolf,高津大権現 Takatsu Daigongen

In 下條村, 馬を野飼いにしていると、荒々しい山犬が現れ馬を食い殺したので、「高津大権現」と唱えた後腰に持っていた鎌で山犬切腹した。その鎌を清めた後、奉納した。


................................................................................. Okayama 岡山県

In Niimi 新見市, Misaki
新見市西方では、変死のあった場所にミサキを祀る。山で首吊りがあると、そこに木を植えてミサキ様といったり、切腹して亡くなった人をツルギミサキ、首吊りで亡くなった人をツナミサキといって祀ったりもする。


................................................................................. Tokyo 東京都

In 神着村, シナの王が漂流してきて、切腹して死んだ。「向かい畑」という丘に葬ったところ、夜な夜な光を発し、異変が生じた。そこで丘と根続きの中で一番高い、大堀の山に改葬したところ異変がやんだ。


................................................................................. Yamanashi 山梨県

gorinzaka ゴリンザカ

In 都留市, 矢島員雄氏の畑の畔にある五輪の石塔のそばの坂をゴリンザカというが、これはこの石塔があるからとも、誰かがこの坂で5厘拾ったからとも、武士のゴリンサンが切腹した場所だからともいう。なお、馬に乗ってこの坂の石塔の前を通り過ぎるものは、必ず落馬するという。

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- reference : nichibun yokai database -

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source : oonisi.way-nifty.com/lameru

Family Seppuku of Bessho Nagaharu 一族切腹 - 別所長治

- quote -
Bessho Nagaharu 別所長治 (1558 - 1580)
a Japanese daimyo of the Sengoku period. He was the eldest son of Bessho Yasuharu.
In 1578
Oda Nobunaga called on his retainers to attack the Mōri clan. Nagaharu almost decided to lead the Oda troops, but after hearing that the low-born general Hashiba Hideyoshi, whom he did not respect, was allied with the Oda faction he revolted, instead allying himself with Hatano Hideharu of Tamba province.
This led to Nagaharu being besieged by Hideyoshi's troops on the orders of Nobunaga. Nagaharu took a stand in Miki Castle 三木城, starting the Siege of Miki. The siege did not go well for Hideyoshi, and with a revolt by Araki Murashige and the help of the Mōri clan Nagaharu successfully repelled the Oda force. But Hideyoshi returned and this time instead of launching a direct assault, he launched multiple sieges against smaller castles like Kamiyoshi Castle and Shigata Castle to cut off the support from Mori.
This led to a rapid depletion of food, and in 1580, with no hope of another reinforcement from Mōri clan, Nagaharu committed seppuku in exchange for the lives of the troops in Miki Castle.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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Seppuku
by Uemon Moridan (Author), eric shahan (Translator), Fumio Manaka (Translator)

An early 19th century Densho, or written transmission of knowledge, on how a Seppuku, or ritual suicide, ceremony should be conducted. This is the first time such a document has been translated into English.
It includes: A reproduction of the entire document A transliteration of the original medieval Japanese A contemporary Japanese interpretation English translation
source : amazon com

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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

ながながと切腹の場や夏芝居
naganaga to seppuku no ba ya natsu shibai

the Seppuku scene
is just soooo long . . .
Kabuki summer performance

Tr. Gabi Greve

Ooki Amari 大木あまり Oki Amari (1941 - )


. WKD : natsu shibai 夏芝居 .
- - Kabuki kigo for late summer - -



source : jikabuki.com/learning_jikabuki

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切腹のいまだはたせず菊人形
岬 雪夫

切腹の間からりんどう見えており
五島高資

切腹の間より見せたる牡丹かな
宗田安正

切腹は白き色なり春の夢
長谷川秋子

春雪いくたび切腹で終る色彩映画
三橋鷹女

藤袴切腹衝動堪えけり
浅賀穀象虫

- - - - - Harakiri - - - - -

稽古する腹切の場や春の雨
keiko suru harakiri no ba ya haru no ame

training
for a scene of Harakiri -
rain in spring


. 正岡子規 Masaoka Shiki .

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どうせ最後は 腹切るつもりの人愛す
山崎秋風鬼

もののふの腹切り岩やかきつばた
矢野智司

初写真腹切矢倉背景に
山口青邨

土蜘蛛に腹切らせゐる大暑かな
石塚友二

枝豆の食ひ腹切らばこぼれ出む
三橋敏雄

楠が腹切るあとの梅のはな
曾良 Sora


- - - - - Kappuku - - - - -

まんじゅしゃげむかし割腹したるかな
八島岳洋

割腹の通草ためらひなかりけり
大橋はじめ

割腹死鶲撒かるる空の端
斎藤玄

- More haiku about finding one's death -

- reference : HAIKUreikuDB -

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- - - To join me on facebook, click the image !

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .


. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]- - - - - #harakiri #seppuku #suicide #ritualsuicide - - - -
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3/26/2016

Sekigahara

[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
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Sakigahara 関が原 / 関ケ原 / 関ヶ原

The village of Sekigahara 関ケ原町 Sekigahara-cho is located in the Fuwa District of Gifu.
In 1600, the Battle of Sekigahara took place here.

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- quote
The Battle of Sekigahara
(関ヶ原の戦い/ 關ヶ原の戰い Sekigahara no Tatakai)

was a decisive battle on October 21, 1600 (Keichō 5, 15th day of the 9th month) that preceded the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate.
Tokugawa Ieyasu
took three more years to consolidate his position of power over the Toyotomi clan and the daimyo, but Sekigahara is widely considered to be the unofficial beginning of the Tokugawa bakufu, the last shogunate to control Japan. Japan had a long period of peace after the battle.
- snip -
- - - - - Seeds of dissent from Sekigahara
While most clans were content with their new status, there were many clans, especially those on the western side, who became bitter about their displacement or what they saw as a dishonorable defeat or punishment. Three clans in particular did not take the aftermath of Sekigahara lightly:
The Mōri clan,
headed by Mōri Terumoto (Mori Terumoto), remained angry toward the Tokugawa shogunate for being displaced from their fief, Aki, and being relocated to the Chōshū Domain, even though the clan did not take part in the battle at all.
The Shimazu clan,
headed by Shimazu Yoshihiro, blamed the defeat on its poor intelligence-gathering, and while they were not displaced from their home province of Satsuma, they did not become completely loyal to the Tokugawa shogunate either. Taking advantage of its large distance between Edo and the island of Kyūshū as well as its improved espionage, the Shimazu clan demonstrated that it was virtually an autonomous kingdom independent from the Tokugawa shogunate during its last days.
The Chōsokabe clan,
headed by Chōsokabe Morichika, was stripped of its title and domain of Tosa and sent into exile. Former Chōsokabe retainers never quite came to terms with the new ruling family, the Yamauchi clan, which made a distinction between its own retainers and former Chōsokabe retainers, giving them lesser status as well as discriminatory treatment. This class distinction continued even generations after the fall of the Chōsokabe clan.
The descendants of these three clans would in two centuries collaborate to bring down the Tokugawa shogunate, leading to the Meiji Restoration.
- - - More details in the WIKIPEDIA !




Sekigahara Kassen Byōbu (『関ヶ原合戦屏風』),
Japanese screen depicting the Battle of Sekigahara (関ヶ原の戦い).
This 1854 replica recreates the original Hikone-jō Bon Sekigahara Kassen Byōbu (彦根城本『関ヶ原合戦屏風』 by Sadanobu Kanō (狩野貞信) from the 1620s and was a treasure of the Lord Ii of Hikone (彦根藩井伊家) thereinafter.
However, it is not a faithful rendition of the original, with some noticeable omissions and design alterations throughout the layout. Collection of The Town of Sekigahara Archive of History and Cultural Anthropology (関ヶ原町歴史民俗資料館所蔵), found in a private collection of a long-term resident of Ōgaki, near Sekigahara.
- source : commons.wikimedia.org -


. Mori Terumoto about winning a battle .
"The Mori Clan should never be involved in a battle!".

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. Nakasendoo 中山道 Nakasendo Road .

58. Sekigahara-juku 関ヶ原宿


Hiroshige print

- quote -
Sekigahara-juku is convenient because it is located at the intersection of many roads. In addition to being part of the Nakasendō, it also is connected to the Hokkoku Kaidō and the Ise Kaidō. However, its location has also been the site of many battles, including the Jinshin War and the Battle of Sekigahara.
In 1843,
the post station had 1,389 residents and 269 buildings. Among the buildings, there was one honjin, one sub-honjin, and 33 hatago.
As the area around the former Sekigahara-juku remains a convenient and popular transportation hub, there are no ruins of the former post town to be found. However, because of all the battles in their area, there are many other ruins that can be seen.
- source : wikipedia -

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- quote - Japan Times -
Battle of Sekigahara: a war set in stone
by Stephen Mansfield

They were selling steamed buns and mugwort ice cream to a handful of history buffs when I arrived at the entrance to War Land, or to use its full name, The Immersion Museum — Sekigahara War Land.
- snip -
The open valley basins of Gifu Prefecture at the very center of Honshu, where the town of Sekigahara lies, were easily co-opted as theaters of war. It’s no coincidence, given the martial history of the region, that the prefectural town of Seki, sitting on the Nakasendo trunk road connecting Tokyo (then Edo) and Kyoto, was once known as the premier sword-making spot in the country.


CLICK for more photos !

Sekigahara was second only to the Battle of Okinawa in being the largest armed conflict between two opposing armies to take place on Japanese soil. It was unquestionably the foremost confrontation between two Japanese forces. In terms of Japanese history, the battle altering the future course of the nation might be compared to Gettysburg.
- snip -
- source : japantimes.co.jp/life/2016/03/19-

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- quote -
In 1600, Sekigahara, the dividing point between eastern and western Japan, was the scene of a decisive battle fought between the Eastern Army led by Tokugawa Ieyasu who aimed to unite Japan under his rule, and the Western Army formed to fight the Tokugawa forces under the command of Ishida Mitsunari.
Although the Western Army had a slight upper hand at first, the situation reversed when Kobayakawa Hideaki defected to the Eastern Army resulting in its victory.



The Battle of Sekigahara, regarded as one of the largest pivotal conflicts in Japanese history, lasted only six hours. Three years later, Ieyasu established the Tokugawa Shogunate at Edo (present-day Tokyo) and took over the rule of Japan. The town of Sekigahara which served as the battlefield of this massive battle abounds today with historic battle-related landmarks. We invite you to come and explore the army base camps and historic landmarks of the Battle of Sekigahara which will take you back to the time of this historic battle. You can also enjoy the beautiful natural surroundings as you stroll around the town of Sekigahara.
- source : kanko-sekigahara.jp -



- further reference -

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やぎ乳アイス Ice cream from Goat's milk
笹尾山麓で関ヶ原名物 - speciality from Sekigahara


. aisukuriimu アイスクリーム ice cream .

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shigure hamaguri 時雨蛤 clamshells in sweet syrup
This refers back to the famous battle of Sekigahara (1600), near Ogaki castle, where the fishermen of Kuwana gave some clams to Tokugawa Ieyasu.
The clams are harvested out of the sand and then left for a while in a bucket of plain water to spit out the sand they still have in their body. They are then boiled in this water with shredded ginger roots and then cooled. Next they are simmered in special soy sauce from Ise (tamari shoyu たまり醤油) and flavored with sweet mizuame syrup.

. WASHOKU - clamshell, hamaguri 蛤 (はまぐり) .

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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

Yamabushi 山伏 mountain priest
During the Battle of Sekigahara, a Samurai cut off the legs of a mountain priest and took away all his food. The Yamabushi cursed him until the seventh generation and then died.
Since then, if a Head of this Samurai family inherits the name, he will suffer from heavy pain in his legs. If he passes on the Headship, he will be healed.

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Ehime 愛媛県 砥部町 Tobe

mekura hebi メクラヘビ the blind snake
Once upon a time
in the 芳賀家 Haga famili, which served as village head, there was a very special woman. She had been to the Battle of Sekigahara and came back. But the family thought of her as a shame and killed her.
Since then there roamed a blind snake in 猿谷 Saruya and got killed, but was later venerated in a Shinto shrine.
She became the deity 芳賀大明神 Haga Daimyojin.

and not related another legend from Matsuyama
八股榎お袖大明神(やつまたえのきおそでだいみょうじん)
Yatsumata Enoki O-Sode Daimyojin
- source : wikipedia -

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Gifu 岐阜県

Nagaragawa no kajika 長良川の河鹿 the Kajika frogs of Nagaragawa
The he lost the battle, female attendants of Oda Hidenobu 織田秀信 (1580 - 1605) threw themselves in the river Nagaragawa and died. Their souls became the Kajika frogs.

. kajikagaeru 河鹿蛙 Polypedates buergeri, river frog .


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Mie 三重県 松坂市 Matsuzaka

Kawakami Hachimangu 川上八幡宮 Shrine
At the battle of Sekigaraha, the head of 大谷刑部 Otani Gyobu (Otani Yoshitsugu, 1559 - 1600) was burried at the roots of some 菖蒲 Japanese Iris by a vassal. A wandering priest observed this, and told Tokugawa Ieyasu that he had cut off the head. Later he became the first Lord of the Todo Clan of Ise 伊勢の藤堂家.
The head of Gyobu was burried at the Shrine Kawakami Hachimangu, but it brought a curse with it.
So the Head of the Todo clan cound never visit this shrine.

川上八幡宮 - 三重県津市美杉町川上3498
3498 Misugicho Kawakami, Tsu, Mie - - - HP of the shrine S
- reference : wakamiya.info-


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Shiga 滋賀県

At the battle of Sekigahara, the leader of the loosing Western Army pleaded for its soldiers not to be beheaded,
but the Eastern Army, in its frenzy of victory, beheaded them all. A serpent living in the weeds there was all washed in blood and became blind and all white.
The souls of the dead slipped into its body and to our day a white serpent lingers on the mountain roads of the region.

When Ishida Mitsunari 石田三成 lost the battle of Sekigahara, his wife and her attendants threw themselves into the ponds 千貫池 Senkan-Ike and 万貫池 Mankan-Ike. Their curse stayed with the ponds and during a great rainfall at night people hear their crying and sniffing voices to our day.

. Ishida Mitsunari 石田三成 (1560 - 1600) .


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Shizuoka 静岡県

Otoragitsune, O-Tora-Gitsune お寅狐 the Fox named Tora (Tiger)
In this area, there are many stories about people being bewitched by a special fox, the
Toragitsune.
When he heard the sound of guns during the Battle of Sekigahara, he run away and became lame on one leg. People who are bewitched by this fox become lame, but also begin to talk about war strategy.

関が原の戦いで鉄砲の音がしてから逃げたらビッコになったという。
. Otoragitsune, O-Tora-Gitsune お寅狐 The Fox named Tora (Tiger) .
and the Battle of Nagashino (長篠の戦い).


- LINK to many ema 絵馬 votive tablets with O-Toragitsune:
- source : youkaiodaie.blog.fc2.com -

This seems a mix-up with the name of the battle of Nagashino,
Nagashino Shitaragahara 長篠設楽原 (ながしの したらがはら).


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関ヶ原畦一筋の野火走る
Sekigahara aze hitosuji no nobi hashiru

Sekigahara -
burning the small paths
between the withered fields

Tr. Gabi Greve

山本悦子 Yamamoto Etsuko

. WKD : nobi 野火(のび)fire of the withered fields .
noyaki 野焼 (のやき) burning the withered fields
- - kigo for spring - -



source : momotaro.naganoblog.jp


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蚊柱のさまよい歩く関が原
岩下四十雀

あらたまの虹かかりゐる関ケ原
鈴木恵美子

胴赤き蟻のさまよふ関ケ原
荒島禾生

古藁塚は伏兵霧の関ヶ原
柴田奈美

- source : haikureiku database -
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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]- - - - - #sekigahara - - - -
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3/06/2016

Yayosugashi district

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. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .
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Yayosugashi 八代洲河岸  / やよすがし Yayosu Quay
Now in Chuo Ward. Yaesu 八重洲

Yayosu / Yeasu is named after the Dutch merchant from Holland,
Jan Joosten van Lodensteyn
ヤン・ヨーステン ファン・ローデンスタイン (1557 - 1623) / 耶揚子


source : rootsdiscovery/yaesu3

A map from 1865. The letters 「八代洲(やよす)川岸」 can be seen beside the gate 和田倉門前.
Jan Joosten presented Tokugawa Ieyasu with 24 lion cubs 虎の子.
In 1872 this area became 八重洲町 Yaesu and in 1929 part of Marunouchi 丸の内.
The district was named 中央区八重洲 in 1954.
Yaesu Avenue has a monument dedicated to Jan Joosten and his life after his arrival in Japan on the Liefde with William Adams.


. William Adams - Miura Anjin 三浦按針 .
(1564 - 1620)

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- quote
Nihonbashi, Yaesu-dōri / Chūō-dōri
Joosten was born in Delft 1556 and died in the South Chinese Sea 1623.


The monument is located in the middle of the Yaesu-dōri (= Jan Joosten Avenue) on the intersection with the Chūō-dōri (Chuo Avenue).

Bronze plaque with two rings, which are shaped as navigtational instruments. The left is dedicated to Jan Joosten van Lodensteyn, includes a copy of the Jan Joosten bust made by L. Braat, which is found a couple of hundred meters further in the Yaesu Shopping Mall. The right ring is dedicated to the ship De Liefde. Both halves contain a long explanation in Japanese and Dutch.



- source : vanderkrogt.net/statues

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- quote -
Jan Joosten van Lodensteijn
(c. 1560 – 1623), or simply Jan Joosten, was a native of Delft and one of the first Dutchmen in Japan, arriving as one of William Adams's shipmates (the second mate) on the De Liefde, which was disabled on the coast of Kyūshū in 1600.
- - - - - Early life in Japan
The De Liefde departed Rotterdam in 1598, on a trading voyage and attempted a circumnavigation of the globe. It was wrecked in Japan in 1600. The 24 survivors were received by future Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu, who questioned them at length on European politics and foreign affairs. As with William Adams, Joosten was selected to be a confidant of the Shogun on foreign and military affairs, and he contributed to the development of relations between the Netherlands and Japan, thereby weakening the influence of Portugal and Spain.

For his services, Jan Joosten was granted a house in Edo (now Tokyo) in a part of the city that came to be called "Yayosu Quay" after him — his name was pronounced yan yōsuten in Japanese (short: Yayōsu (耶楊子)) — and the name exists in the name of Yaesu side of Tokyo Station. Although not allowed to return to the Netherlands, Joosten was allowed to take a Japanese wife and was given a permit to engage in foreign trade. He was privileged to wear the two swords of the samurai and received an annual stipend which placed him (along with Adams) among the ranks of the hatamoto or direct retainers of the Shogun. Joosten was said to be a drunk with a choleric temperament, and at one point was not welcome at Ieyasu's court.



Joosten is reported to have made a fortune in trade between Japan and Southeast Asia, chartering several Red Seal Ships under license from Tokugawa Ieyasu.
After the establishment of the Dutch Factory in Hirado, he became a middleman between Dutch merchants and the Shogunate.
He is also said to have been to Siam on one of his ships, with the Japanese adventurer and author Tenjiku Tokubei. Later, he attempted to return to the Netherlands, but after reaching Batavia, he was denied permission by Dutch authorities to proceed further.
He drowned in the South China Sea in 1623 when his ship sank as he was returning to Japan.
- - - source : WIKIPEDIA


Tenjiku Tokubei 天竺徳兵衛 (1612 - c. 1692)
a Japanese adventurer and writer of the early 17th century. He traveled to Southeast and South Asia, hence his "Tenjiku" (Japanese: 天竺, East Asian name of "India") nickname.
He was born in Sendo-machi, Takasago-cho, in today's Hyōgo Prefecture in 1612. His father was a salt wholesaler.
At the age of fifteen, in 1626, Tokubei was hired by a trading company in Kyoto. He pursued commercial activities aboard Japanese Red Seal Ships.
In 1627, Tokubei visited China, Vietnam and Siam (modern Thailand) on board a Japanese Red Seal ship. He would stay for some time in Siam and again visit the country on board one of the ships of the Dutch adventurer Jan Joosten van Lodensteijn. He also sailed to India, to the source of the Ganges, and the country of Magadha, and returned with great wealth and numerous stories to tell.
Upon his return to Japan,
and after the introduction of the Seclusion policy (Sakoku), Tokubei wrote an essay titled "Tenjiku Tokai Monogatari" (天竺渡海物語, "Relations of sea travels to India") on his adventures in foreign countries, which became very popular in Japan.


彩入御伽草 Eiri Otogi Zôshi - Kabuki actor 尾上松助 Onoe Matsusuke
Utagawa Toyokuni 歌川豊国

- - - - - The Kabuki character ...
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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- quote -
Utagawa Hiroshige (1797 - 1858)
Utagawa Hiroshige was born in 1797 in the Yayosugashi district of Edo, the son of Ando Genemon, a member of the fire-fighting brigade maintained by the Tokugawa Shogunate. At the time, Kitagawa Utamaro and Toshusai Sharaku were at their prime as ukiyo-e artists. Ukiyo-e, which means art of the floating world, refers to the impermanence of life and the enjoyment of pleasure free of mundane concerns. ...
After the death of his parents in 1809, Andō Tokutarō (Hiroshige) took over his father's place as a firefighter.
- source : bk.mufg.jp/global/newsroom -

江戸の八代洲河岸(やよすがし)定火消屋敷の同心、安藤源右衛門の子.
. Utagawa Hiroshige 歌川広重 .

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八重洲大路ふと秋風に出遇ひけり
Yaesu ooji futo akikaze ni deai keri

at Yaesu Road
I come to meet a bout
of autumn wind . . .

Tr. Gabi Greve

Sutoo Shooko 須藤省子 Suto Shoko (1923 - )


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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Persons and People of Edo - Personen .


[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]- - - - - #yayosugashi #yaesu #JanJoosten - - - -
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2/28/2016

Kojimachi district

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. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .
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Koojimachi, Kōjimachi 麹町 / 麴町 Kojimachi district
. Chiyoda ku 千代田区 Chiyoda ward - "Fields of Eternity" .



Many shops who made and sold Koji for Japanese food lived in this area, hence the name.
For example 麹屋三四郎 Kojiya Sanshiro.



Another explanation links the name to the beginning of the road to Koshu, Koofuji 国府路 Kofuji, pronounced fast as Koji and soon written with the character 麹.

. kooji 麹 Japanese yeast .
with Aspergillus oryzae or A. sojae
To make soy sauce, miso paste, rice wine and other types of Japanese food and drink.


During the Edo period, many wholesalers lived here, also carpenters and wall plasterers and many merchants which delivered to the Bakufu government (goyootashi 御用達) and Edo castle.
okuishi 奥医師  Doctors who attended to the Tokugawa concubines of Ooku 大奥 also lived here.

Kojimachi is a long district with many sub-districts, the third one, Sanbancho often simply called "Bancho", where many Hatamoto retainers lived. They had a special area for horse training, 騎射調練馬場.


source : ameblo.jp/tkyburabura

Since 1865, the second and third sons of 旗本 Hatamoto came here, placed 焙烙 Horoku earthen plates on their head and tried to hit them down while riding in two fighting groups. ほうろく調練場.

Now it is a very expensive area with luxury appartment houses.

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- quote -
A neighborhood in Chiyoda, Tokyo.
Prior to the arrival of Tokugawa Ieyasu, it was known as Kōjimura (糀村 Kojimura). The area developed as townspeople settled along the 甲州街道 Kōshū Kaidō. In 1878 Kōjimachi became a ward in the city of Tokyo. It was the forerunner of Chiyoda which is now a special ward.

The Kōjimachi ward was larger than past day Kōjimachi. The area centered upon Kōjimachi including the districts of the Banchō (番町 Bancho) area, Kudanminami, Kioichō, Hirakawachō and Hayabusachō is sometimes referred as the Kojimachi area (麹町地区).
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


. Edo Nana Fushigi 江戸七不思議 The Seven Wonders of Edo  .
番町七不思議 Banchoo Nana Fushigi

. Hayabusachoo, Hayabusachō 隼町 Hayabusacho district . - Chiyoda

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. 麹町地区 Kojimachi and other sub-districts in Chiyoda .
List of sub-districts featured in the Edopedia

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Soto sakurada benkeibori kojimachi Kojimachi and the Benkei Canal at Soto Sakurada
by Hiroshige 広重 - 糀町一丁目山王祭ねり込 Sanno Festival at Kojimachi I-chome


- quote -
Kojimachi and Bancho - an old samurai residential area
The Kojimachi and Bancho areas stretch from Hanzomon Station to the east of the Kokyo (Imperial Palace), towards Shinjuku. The area was formerly used as a residential area for Edo Period samurai but in the early 21st century the area is significantly different to that found here in earlier times.
The Kokuritsu Gekijo (National Theatre of Japan), Japan's only classical art theater stands near Hanzomon Station today. The building was designed to imitate the Azekura-zukuri (Azekura style) of Todaiji Temple near Nara and its splendid atmosphere embodies the beauty of Japanese tradition. Offering Kabuki in the 'Large Theater,' Hogaku (traditional Japanese music), Gagaku, and Bunraku (a form of Japanese puppet show) in the 'Small Theater,' and Rakugo (a traditional Japanese sit-down comedy), Manzai (a Japanese stand-up comedy), and Kodan (storytelling) in the Engeijo (Engei Hall), it has something for everyone. In addition, tours can be taken of its exhibition room: THE best place to know about Japanese traditional performing arts.
- 'Bancho.' Its name originates from the fact that 'Bankata' soldiers used to live here. ('Bankata' soldiers consisted of Hatamoto who served under the direct control of the ruling Shogun.)
... Chidorigafuchi ... Uchibori-Dori ...
... Walking around Kojimachi and Yotsuya, you will often feel the mood of the old Edo Period. The coexistence of modern buildings alongside their older counterparts. Fashionable shops in a quiet residential area sat amidst historical monuments being an example. It is a fun area to walk around and to browse through shops that catch your eye. Or, for the more historically inclined, it is another interesting area of the capital in which to tour historical sites and to glimpse Japanese history.
- source : att-japan.net/en -

The Banchō area (actually consisting of six neighborhoods, from Ichibancho to Rokubanchō),
an upper class residential area, home of the embassies of Belgium, the UK and Israel.
Ichibancho 一番町 First district
Nibancho 二番町 Second
Sanbancho 三番町 Third
Yonbancho 四番町 Fourth
Gobancho 五番町 Fifth
Rokubancho 六番町 Six district


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In Edo, meat was offered at the market of Kojimachi 麹町.
chiku 畜 referred to four-legged animals that should not be eaten by Buddhists and kin 禽 referred two-legged animals, birds to be eaten.

momonji
referes to the meat of wild animals, like wild boar, deer, monkeys or Tanuki badgers and even dogs. (Dog meat was a favorite with the samurai of the Satsuma domain 薩摩.
The first momonjiya shop in Edo was most probably the Kooshuuya 甲州屋 Koshuya in Koojimachi 麹町 Kojimachi.
Yamaokuya 山奥屋 offered wild boar and monkey meat.

. momonjiya ももんじ屋 / 百獣屋  selling meat "from one-hundred wild animals" .
kedamonoya 獣屋 dealers in wild animals
yamaokuya 山奥屋 dealers with stuff from the far-away mountains
kusuriguiho 薬食舗 restaurant serving "medicine" meat



麹町狐を馬に乗せてくる
koojimachi kitsune o uma ni nosete kuru

Kojimachi town -
a fox comes riding
on a horse



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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

haifuri tanuki 灰降狸 the ash-throwing Tanuki


source : plala.or.jp/cotton-candy

In the year 1854 in the 6th lunar month there was constantly ashes raining down to the ground of the 平河天満宮 Hirakawa Tenjin Shrine in 麹町 Kojimachi.
People thought it was the malicious deed of a Tanuki badger.

Another legend tells of stones raining from the sky near the back entrance of the Shrine, sometimes 50 to 60 during day and night. They were rather large stones with moss on them. Some looked like pieces of roof tiles. But they never hurt any person.
When someone collected the stones in one place during a day, they were all gone after the next night was over.

On a stormy night, it rained hairs of an animal in Kojimachi. Since people there used to eat meat of animals, even horses, it might have been the hair of the 天馬 "heavenly horse" mentioned in the sutra 山海経 Sengai Kyo.

. 江戸 Edo - 妖怪 Yokai monsters, 幽霊 Yurei ghosts .

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. Kappa 河童 water goblin .
In 1785, 麹町飴屋 a sweet shop in Kojimachi, every evening there came a child, begging for a sweet. one evening the shop owner followed the child and saw it disappear in the canal. Now he knew this must have been a Kappa. A few days later, the child came back again, got his sweet and paid for it. That was the last time the Kappa showed up.


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三年坂 Sannenzaka / Sannen-zaka
In the middle of Sannenzaka there is a bake-yashiki 化け物屋 / bakemono yashiki 化物屋しき Monster House.
if a couple walks here late at night, the face of the woman might begin to get longer or smaller and become quite horrifying.
The light in the room goes on and off and a woman lying down being ill suddenly goes up to do some cleaning and then disappears on the spot.


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Sara yashiki 皿屋敷 "the Dish Mansion"
This is a famous story centering around an old well in Kojimachi or Bancho 番町皿屋敷. More legends about this story relate to a well in Izumo, Harima and other regions.

A Japanese ghost story of broken trust and broken promises, leading to a dismal fate of "O-Kiku and the Nine Plates"
. Sara yashiki 皿屋敷 "the Dish Mansion" .

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kai-i 怪異 something strange
Dote Yonbancho 土手四番町

In March, a man living in Yonbancho was suddenly able to float things in the air, like his dinner tray, tobacco tray or even a stone mortar.
Some said it was a curse of a mountain priest or an 陰陽師 Onmyoji or even the Kami and Buddhas themselves and performed exorcistic rituals, to no avail. Some said it was a forebode that his family would perish. Some said something similar had happened to a man in 目黒 Meguro, but that was not true. Eventually he had to dismiss four of his workers and the strange thing stopped.

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shari 舎利 sacred bones of Buddha
Once there lived a man in Kojimachi, who did not believe in the Laws of Buddha 仏法.
But one day a sacred bone of Buddha came out of his forehead.

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- reference : nichibun yokai database -

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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -



source : yasuda.iobb.net/wp-googleearth_e

麹町 壱丁目 Kojimachi First District
「江戸名所図会」 - - 山王祭 Sanno Festival
絵左の天水桶に描かれる屋号が岩に見えるので、岩城枡屋前

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麹町十三丁目まで祭かな
koojimachi juusanchoome made matsuri kana

until the thirteenth district
of Kojimachi
its festival time . . .

Tr. Gabi Greve

Nomura Kishuu 野村喜舟 Nomura Kishu (1886 - 1983)


. WKD : matsuri 祭り festival .
- - kigo for all summer - -

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炎天や麹町なし水巴なし
enten ya koojimachi nashi suiha nashi

this blazing sky -
no more Kojimachi
no more Suiha


Saitoo Kuuge 斎藤空華 Saito Kuge (1918 - 1950)


Watanabe Suiha 渡辺水巴 (1882 - 1946) Haiku Poet
Suiha ki 水巴忌 Suiha memorial day (August 8)
- reference -


. WKD : enten 炎天 blazing sky .
- - kigo for all summer - -


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. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]
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