5/04/2016

kenyaku frugality

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
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kenyaku 倹約 frugality, thrift - Sparsamkeit

. Buke shohatto 武家諸法度 Laws for the Samurai .

- - - - - Articles promulgated in 1615
12 Samurai throughout the realm are to practice frugality.

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A Model of Ecological Sustainability
Craft guilds and craftspeople that specialized in repairing broken goods were not rare in the pre-industrial world, but Japan during the Edo Period was a uniquely closed-off island location where frugality was an important virtue and self-sufficiency was crucial to survival.
- Eisuke Ishikawa

. Recycling and Reuse in Edo - リサイクル と 再生 / 再使用 .


bakusei kaikaku 幕政改革 Shogunate government reform
seitaku 贅沢 luxury
shashi kinshihoo 奢侈禁止法
- - - - - shashi kinshi rei 奢侈禁止令 law against luxury
shisso kenyaku 質素倹約 frugal life, modest life



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kenyakurei, kenyaku rei 倹約令
laws regulating expenditures; sumptuary edicts; thrift ordinance



source : blogs.yahoo.co.jp/kitasandou2
「寛政の倹約令」Kansei no Kenyaku Rei

During the long Edo period, quite a few laws to promote frugality were made.
One of the most famous it the
shashi kinshi rei 奢侈禁止令 law against luxury 1787
after the great famine of Tenmei 天明の大飢饉, ordered by
松平定信 Matsudaira Sadanobu.
Food, robes and the general lifestyle were greatly influenced by this law.

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The common people were forbidden to wear silk robes 絹布着用禁.
To pass aroung this law, the clever Edokko stopped using silk on the outside of their Kimono, but used them inside for linings.

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Special materials like yuuki tsumugi 結城紬 Yuki tsumugi used a cotton warp thread for weaving and were thus permitted.

- quote -
Yūki-tsumugi 結城紬 is the Japanese craft of silk cloth practised chiefly in the vicinity of Yūki in Ibaraki Prefecture.
Developing from earlier silk techniques, the name Yūki-tsumugi was adopted in 1602. Weavers were invited from Ueda and the cloth, at first plain, was used as gifts for the shogun. Currently approximately one hundred and thirty craftsmen transmit the technique in Yūki and Oyama.
Silk floss is extracted from silkworm cocoons and spun by hand into yarn. Patterns are added by tie-dyeing, before weaving with a loom known as a jibata (地機). The strap around the weaver's waist enables the tension of the vertical thread to be adjusted. It can take up to fifteen days to weave enough plain fabric for an adult garment, and up to forty-five days for patterned fabric.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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This is a modern Daruma from Celuloid, looking like bekko.

Accesories and hair decorations from tortoiseshell were forbidden. So the crafstmen pretended their pieces were made from cheap suppon スッポン Suppon turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis

. bekkoo 鼈甲 / べっこう / べっ甲 tortoiseshell .

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Some luxury was appearing within the regulations 規制内で贅沢.

Since large 雛人形 Hina dolls for the Doll festival were forbidden, craftsmen made small but very luxurious ones.

Yukuta robes from cotton were allowed, so the craftsmem made them with ever more elaborate patterns.
Bright red and yellow colors were not allowed any more. so the craftsmen prepares
. hyaku nezumi 百鼠 a hundred shades of gray .
so show their individual tastes.


CLICK for more nezu colors !

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Viewing Japanese Prints
- quote -
FAQ: What were sumptuary edicts?
Numerous sumptuary regulations were issued throughout the Edo period (1615-1868) to control the expression of ideas that were deemed a threat to public decorum, safety, or morality, or that were subversive to the ruling Tokugawa shogunate. Ostentatious and inappropriate behavior and display for all the classes was proscribed.
The earliest sumptuary laws were based on similar practices from China, where consumption was correlated positively with status. In Japan these regulations were called ken'yakurei ("laws regulating expenditures": 儉約令) for all classes of society. They did not constitute a distinct body of laws, but rather were part of the occasional regulatory proclamations (ofuregaki: 御觸書) issued by the rôjû ("council of elders": 牢中) and disseminated through various intermediaries to the intended group or class.

Although the chônin ("persons of the town": 町人) often complained about the repressive measures, the government generally relied more on threats and exhortations than on imposing punishments. There were only a limited number of recorded cases of arrest for violating sumptuary edicts cited in Tokugawa-period legal documents or the popular literature. Throughout the Edo period the sumptuary regulations frequently referred to previous edicts, suggesting that many were not considered permanent or practically enforceable, and that compliance among the targeted groups was often a problem. An expression of the time, mikka hatto ("three-day laws": 三日法度), suggested that violations of sumptuary laws often followed after only brief periods of compliance.

Content and the Expression of Ideas
There were during the Edo period various periodic restrictions on "content," such as edicts that prohibited publishing about current events, unorthodox theories, rumors, scandals, erotica, government officials, or anything directly related to the Tokugawa rulers or the Imperial Family. One of the most repressive set of edicts was known as the Kansei Reforms, named after the era name Kansei (I/1789 - II/1801) in which they were enacted. With the death of the shogun Ieharu in 1786, his successor Ienari (1773-1841; ruled 1787-1837) remained a minor until 1793, and the real governing power was in the hands of Matsudaira Sadanobu (1758-1829), a grandson of the shogun Yoshimune and the daimyô (military lord, literally "great name") of the Shirakawa domain.
Sadanobu held the post of chief councilor (rojû shuseki) from 1787 to 1793. He initiated reforms that he believed were needed after a series of riots in various cities in the summer of 1787 were precipitated by high rice prices following several years of poor harvests and famines. The early stages of the Kansei Reforms focused on the removal from power of corrupt officials and the institution of various specific measures to check inflation and stabilize prices. The reforms were later extended to the field of publishing in 1790. In the fifth month of that year, no new books were to be published except by special permission. Current events were not to be depicted in prints, and gorgeous and extravagant works were to be avoided. No unorthodox theories were to be published, while the publication of erotica was to be gradually halted.
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Appearance and Expenditures
Other sumptuary edicts attempted to proscribe "appearance" and the expenditure of wealth as appropriate to each class. As some of the merchants began to amass large fortunes and live in a manner previously reserved only for the samurai class, the bakafu ("tent government," the shôgun's ruling officials) issued sumptuary laws to reinforce the distinctions between the classes, to encourage frugality, and to maintain a Neo-Confucian system of moral conduct. The government was particularly concerned that the morale and discipline of the samurai class should not be undermined by ostentatious displays of wealth among the 'chônin'. Many regulations proscribed the consumption of goods and services and placed limits on luxurious entertainment, identifying what was appropriate for members of each social level and closely correlating consumption with social status.
- snip -

Ukiyo-e researchers have long cited examples of edicts that affected printmaking, such as the banning of prints with bust portraits of women in the first month of Kansei 12 (1800). The edict was a curious one, as it admitted that there was nothing really wrong with such prints, but that they were to be proscribed as medatsu ("conspicuous"). Another example was the ban in 1793 on prints with the names of women other than courtesans.
- snip -
Among the worst of the later set of edicts were the repressive Tenpô kaikaku ("Tenpô Reforms") of 1842-1847.

- Read the full text here:
- reference source : viewingjapaneseprints.net/texts - John Fiorillo


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- reference -

- reference : norenkai.net -


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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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