Showing posts with label - - - History - - - the EDO period -. Show all posts
Showing posts with label - - - History - - - the EDO period -. Show all posts

4/12/2019

Seibu Train Posters

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. Famous Places and Power spots of Edo 江戸の名所 .
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Seibu Train Posters

- quote
Seibu Railway's train etiquette posters in ukiyo-e style
are a hit in Japan and overseas

Posters that use traditional kimono-wearing characters portrayed in the style of Edo Period ukiyo-e to educate train passengers on proper etiquette have gained attention abroad, with the works featured in a British exhibition and printed in Taiwanese textbooks.

First introduced in September 2016, the light-hearted yet educational posters can be found in train stations operated by Seibu Railway Co. in and around Tokyo. The ukiyo-e art form traditionally depicts scenes of the Edo Period (1603-1868).

One image shows a courtesan sitting on a train as she uses a smartphone, while a man with a topknot lounges next to her with a book on his lap. The surrounding passengers are looking at them in annoyance and the poster has text reading,
“Please let others sit comfortably.”




The cultural reference points are used in a range of posters, including one asking commuters to be thoughtful of fellow travelers by depicting an anthropomorphic frog and monkey talking loudly as passengers cover their ears in protest.

The posters were an immediate hit when they were first put up at Seibu train stations, with some passengers asking for the images to be printed on merchandise.

London’s Victoria and Albert Museum began exhibiting the posters in March, noting the interesting amalgamation of tradition and modernity.

“The posters illustrate the bustle and thrill of city life in modern Japan. Humor tempers the message about how to be a well-behaved commuter,” it says on its website introducing the pieces.

A company running cram schools in Taiwan also included the images in their Japanese textbooks.

“We wanted to attract interest from the growing number of overseas visitors,” said Seibu Railway customer service official Konomi Yamamoto, who originally proposed the idea.

“We were able to depart from stereotypical posters by making (the ukiyo-e) appealing. I’m surprised by the overwhelming international response,” she said.
- source : Japan Times












Seibu Railways (西武鉄道)


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. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - The Japanese Home .

. Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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- - - - - #seibutrain #ukiyoeposters #posters #manners - - - -
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4/10/2019

New Banknotes

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. Persons and People of Edo - Personen .
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New Banknotes



- quote
Japanese banknotes get a makeover
On Tuesday, Japanese finance minister Taro Aso announced that Japanese banknotes will be getting a redesign. The new notes are expected to enter circulation around 2024, the first change since 2004.
Three historical figures
have been chosen for the new designs, selected based on several guidelines. They include that the figures must be widely known in Japan, that their achievements be such that the Japanese people take pride in them, and that precise pictures of them exist so as to prevent forgeries.
There are a couple exceptions to the makeover. The 2000 yen note will remain unchanged, as there are not many in circulation, while the 500 yen coin will be redesigned around 2021.

The new 10,000 yen note will feature famed industrialist Eiichi Shibusawa. He was a driver of Japanese industry from the 19th through early 20th century, and is considered the "father of Japanese capitalism."
Following the Meiji Restoration, Shibusawa worked with the finance ministry before becoming a businessman. He helped establish and develop more than 500 businesses. Among them was Japan's first bank, which eventually became Mizuho Bank. He also created the predecessors of the Tokyo Stock Exchange and the Tokyo Chamber of Commerce.
The reverse side of the note will feature the Tokyo train station building.

The 5,000 yen note will feature Umeko Tsuda, a pioneer in Japanese women's education. She became one of the first Japanese women to study in the United States at 6 years old, and went on to found Tsuda University in Tokyo.
The reverse side will have wisteria flowers.

The 1,000 yen note will feature bacteriologist Shibasaburo Kitasato. His achievements in the field of infectious disease prevention include the development of a treatment for tetanus.
The reverse side is Japanese ukiyoe master Katsushika Hokusai's "In the Well of the Great Wave off Kanagawa." It's one of the world's most famous woodblock prints.

The new notes will be the same size as the current ones but the Arabic numbers will be written in larger letters.

The notes will also incorporate new 3D holograms and other anti-forgery technology. The images will look like they're moving as the angle changes. It's believed this is the first time this technology is being incorporated in banknotes anywhere in the world.
Aso said banknote designs have to be changed every 20 years or so to prevent counterfeiting. He said the changes were announced now because it takes about five years to prepare the new bills.
The finance minister also said the three figures on the notes each made huge contributions to issues that remain relevant today and are appropriate for the upcoming Reiwa Era.
Economic benefit
Experts say the redesign will also be a boost to the economy, creating demand in a range of industries. ...
- source : NHK world / Maiko Eiraku





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. Hokusai and the great wave .


. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - The Japanese Home .

. Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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- - - - - #money #newmoney #newbanknotes - - - -
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4/01/2019

REIWA reiwa period

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. nengoo, nengō 年号 Nengo, era name, period name .
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reiwa 令和 Reiwa



于時初春月 氣淑風梅披鏡前之粉
時は初春の良き月、空気は美しく風も和やかで、
梅は鏡前で装うように白く咲き
蘭薫珮後之香(蘭は身に帯びた香りのように香っている)

月 a "majestic month"
harmony




shoshun no reigetsu ni shite ki yoku kaze yawaragi
ume wa kyoosen no ko o hiraki
ran wa haigo no ko o kaorasu


- quote -
"On a moon-lit night in early spring, the air is fresh and the wind is calm,
the plum flowers are blooming like a beautiful woman
applying white powder in front of the mirror,
and the fragrance of the flowers are like that of robes scented with incense."


It is during the month of good fortune ("rei"), when the air is auspicious, the winds are gentle/harmonious ("wa"),
and the plum flowers blossoming like makeup applied to a beauty resplendent before a mirror, and the orchids adorning themselves in their scent.


The above is not a poem in the Manyo-Shu, but the title of a collection of 16 poems about plum blossoms.


Government announces new era name: 'Reiwa'
'Reiwa' -- tentative spelling -- is a name that will be on the lips of most Japanese today and it will be for years to come.
It's the name the Japanese government selected for the new era, which is set to start when Crown Prince Naruhito becomes the new Emperor on May 1.
The announcement was highly anticipated here because it will define the years ahead, as well as play a daily role in people's lives.
Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga revealed the name saying, " The new era name is 'Reiwa'," and how it's written in Kanji characters.
Those letters come from Manyoshu, the oldest existing anthology of Japanese poetry.
The Cabinet chose the name from a list of proposals made by experts. The government is refraining from disclosing their identities of the experts.
Emperor Akihito is set to abdicate on April 30, which will end the current Heisei era.
The government is announcing the new name in advance, so companies and the general public can prepare for the change.
The era name is used on numerous occasions and official papers, including drivers' licenses, health insurance cards, and calendars.
- reference source : NHK world news -




- quote -
... TV commentators struggled to offer a direct translation, but the two characters, taken from Man’yoshu, the oldest existing anthology of Japanese poetry, mean “decree” and “peace.” It is unusual for a gengo to be taken from a Japanese, rather than Chinese, work of classical literature.
Earlier,
the prime minister, Shinzo Abe, told reporters he believed the process would produce a new era name that
“would lead to a new era brimming with hope”.
- source : theguardian.com... -


- quote -
The Reiwa period (Japanese: 令和時代 Reiwa jidai)
will be the next era of Japan. The period is expected to start on 1 May 2019, the day when Emperor Akihito's son, Naruhito, will ascend to the throne as the 126th Emperor.
Emperor Akihito is expected to abdicate the Chrysanthemum Throne on 30 April 2019, marking the end of Heisei period.
Thus, 2019 corresponds to Heisei 31 until 30 April, and Reiwa 1 (令和元年 Reiwa gannen, "first year of Reiwa") from 1 May.
It is the first Japanese era name of which the characters were taken from Japanese classical literature instead of Chinese literature
..... the name marks the 248th era name designated in Japanese history. While the "wa" character 和 has been used in 19 previous era names, the "rei" character 令 has never appeared before.
- source : wikipedia -



- quote -
令和(れいわ)は日本の元号の一つ。平成の次の元号で日本最初の元号とされる大化以降248番目の元号。
平成は今上天皇の退位により2019年(平成31年)4月30日をもって終了し、皇太子徳仁親王が即位する2019年5月1日から令和元年となる予定。
日本の憲政史上では初の退位に伴う皇位継承による改元となる。
- reference source : wikipedia -



- April 02


- quote -
Five other era name candidates identified
NHK has learned the five proposed names that were not selected to represent Japan's next Imperial era.
The government announced on Monday that the next era, set to begin on May 1 when Crown Prince Naruhito ascends to the throne, will be known as "Reiwa."

Sources say "英弘 Eiko," "久化 Kyuka," "広至 Koshi," "万和 Banna," and "万保 Banpo" were also considered.

The government selected the six candidates from expert submissions. After discussing them with a special panel and the heads of both houses of the Diet on Monday, the government decided on "Reiwa" at a Cabinet meeting.
The six candidates were selected because the characters were easy to read and write, a criteria considered in Imperial era names.
"Eiko" was sourced from classical Japanese literature, while "Koshi" was derived from both Japanese and Chinese classics. They are "The Chronicles of Japan" and "The Classic of Poetry" from "The Four Books and Five Classics," a collection that contains the basic teachings of Confucius.
Chinese classics are included in the sources for "Kyuka," "Banna" and "Banpo."

The government says it will not disclose the name of the person who proposed "Reiwa," but it is believed to be Japanese literary scholar Susumu Nakanishi.
He specializes in "Manyoshu," the oldest existing anthology of Japanese poetry and source of the selected name.
Nakanishi is a Professor Emeritus at the International Research Center for Japanese Studies.
- reference source : NHK news-


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- quote -
新元号「令和」を読み解く 二文字が持つ意味は?
平成に代わる5月からの新元号が1日、「令和」に決まった。出典は日本最古の歌集「万葉集」から。「
令」は元号に使われるのは初めて、「和」は20回目となる。新時代を象徴することになる2文字。どのような意味があり、願いが込められているのか、専門家に話を聞きながら読み解いた。
..... 川本名誉教授は「これまでの元号の出典はいずれも「四書五経」などの難しい散文ばかりだった。日本人の親しみやすさを考えれば、漢語で書かれた詩書にも出典の範囲を広げるべきだ」と話している。
- reference source : nikkei.com/article... -


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Changing the Calendar
Ross Bender

... the Nara Japan is conspicuous for its peculiar chelonian nengō :
Reiki 霊亀 (715– 717), Jinki 神亀 (724–729), and Hōki 宝亀 (770–781) — all inspired by the appearance of sacred tortoises.
The Tenpyō 天平 era name was inspired by characters engraved on the carapace of an unusual tortoise.
Both the Keiun 慶雲 (704–708) and Jingo Keiun 神護景雲 (767–770) eras acquired their names from the awesome manifestation of unusually colored clouds.
In the case of the change from Tenpyō Shōhō 天平勝宝 (749–756) to Tenpyō Hōji 天平宝字 (757–765) during the reign of Kōken Tennō, the auspicious event was a fantastic oracle woven on the cocoon of a silkworm—sixteen “jeweled characters” interpreted by court officials as prophesying long life for the empress and peace in the realm after the tumultuous events of the Naramaro conspiracy.
But Shoku Nihongi describes not only this pivotal miraculous omen, it also records a number of imperial edicts highlighting the political theology of the court. The content of these edicts evidences the various theological strands— native, Buddhist, and Confucian—woven into the intellectual tapestry of the emerging ideology of the Nara state as the court weighed the significance of the intervention of the gods into human affairs and continued to articulate theories of divine legitimation for imperial power.
- source : Japanese Journal of Religious Studies -


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April 07, 2019

More articles about the translation of REIWA appear here and there.
The most precise seems to be

"Rule Japan".

- quote Michael Kanke
Not too late to choose a new era name
Like many others, I awaited with excitement the unveiling of Japan’s new era name on April 1. Sadly, upon learning the new name (Reiwa), I was shocked and deeply disappointed. While kanji can have diverse meanings, to me the first character is strongly associated with the meaning “rule; command,” which seems too intimidating to belong in an era name. In fact, that character hasn’t been used once in any of the 247 preceding era names.
Looking into the cited source,
I was surprised yet again. The characters were reported to come from “Manyoshu,” Japan’s oldest surviving poetry collection. While I was happy to see that Japan was, apparently for the first time, using one of its own ancient documents to compose an era name, upon researching the specific passage cited as the source, I discovered that, curiously, it is not a poem. Rather, it is the prefatory text that precedes a collection of 32 poems composed during a plum-blossom viewing banquet. This text describes the site of the banquet, and the conditions under which the banquet guests composed their poems.
A poetry collection was used as the source, but not any of the thousands of poems within it?
Furthermore,
the two characters chosen from that passage do not have the same degree of balance and relationship with each other as did, say, those chosen to form the previous era name: Heisei.
These factors make this name choice highly suspect. Taken together, they give the impression that the desired era name was chosen first, and then a passage was found to provide a justification for the choice. Furthermore, as the second character is sometimes used to represent “Japan,” this name allows for an alternate, menacing interpretation: “Rule Japan.”
For recent eras,
the new name was not announced until the time of enthronement of a new emperor. As that event is still a few weeks away, it is certainly not too late to change the name. I strongly urge the Japanese people to understand how this choice was made, and to question its validity. There is still time to replace this flawed era name before it takes effect.
MICHAEL KANKE
- source : Japan Times April 05 -


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. nengoo, nengō 年号 Nengo, era name, period name .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - The Japanese Home .

. Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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7/06/2017

nengo era names

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
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nengoo, nengō 年号 Nengo, "year name", era name, period name

The system of Japanese era names (年号 nengō, "year name") was irregular until the beginning of the 8th century. After 701, sequential era names developed without interruption across a span of centuries.
..... The system on which the Japanese era names are based originated in China in 140 BC, and was adopted by Japan in AD 645, during the reign of Emperor Kōtoku.
The first era name to be assigned was "Taika" (大化), celebrating the political and organizational changes which were to flow from the great Taika reform (大化の改新) of 645. Although the regular practice of proclaiming successive era names was interrupted in the late seventh century, it was permanently re-adopted in 701 during the reign of Emperor Monmu (697–707). Since then, era names have been used continuously up through the present day.
..... In historical practice, the first day of a nengō (元年 gannen) starts whenever the emperor chooses; and the first year continues until the next lunar new year, which is understood to be the start of the nengō's second year.
- quote : wikipedia -



All the Nengo have a detailed Timeline in the wikipedia:
- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1596 慶長 Keichō

. Keicho no Eki 慶長の役 Fight of Keicho .
Kato Kiyomasa 加藤清 in Kumamoto

Tokugawa Ieyasu founded the Edo Bakufu in Keicho 8.
He passed on the title of Shogun to Hidetada in Keicho 10.
The 鎖国政策 Sakoku policy of closing the land for trade, except for Holland, was introduced in Keicho 14. (1609)
Banning Christianity followed in Keicho 18 (1613).
大坂冬の陣 Osaka Fuyu no Jin, the Winter Siege of Osaka and final victory for the Tokugawa government was in Keicho 19. (1615).

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1615 元和 Genna - also Genwa

Genna 02 - Death of Tokugawa Ieyasu (1616)
- - Summer Siege of Osaka
- - . Buke Shohatto 武家諸法度 laws for the Samurai .
Genna 09 - Tokugawa Iemitsu becomes Shogun

. Unpei fude 雲平筆 Unpei brush - Fujino Unpei 藤野雲平.
made since the Genna period

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1624 寛永 Kan'ei (Kanei)
Empress Meishō, 1629–1643; Emperor Go-Kōmyō, 1643–1654.

Kanei 01 - Spanish trade ships were banned.
Kanei 10 - Japanese were forbidden to travel outside of Japan - Sakoku policy was firmly installed.
Kanei 11 - Building of 出島 Dejima island in Nagasaki.
Kanei 12 - Buke Shohatto Samurai laws became even stricter. 参勤交代 Sankin Kotai visits to Edo were enforced.
Kanei 14 - . 島原の乱 Shimabara no Ran Rebellion .
Kanei 19 - 1642 . 寛永の大飢饉 Great Famine of Kanei .

. Kaneiji 寛永寺 Kanei-Ji - Temple in Ueno .

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1644 正保 Shōhō

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1648 慶安 Keian also Kyōan

Keian 06 - 1651 . Keian jiken 慶安事件 The Keian uprising .
- - - Yui Shoosetsu - Shōsetsu 由井正雪 Yui Shosetsu (1605 - 1651)
- - - Marubashi Chuuya - Chūya 丸橋忠弥 Marubashi Chuya (? - 1651)

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1652 承応 Jōō also Shōō; Emperor Go-Sai, 1655–1663.

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1655 明暦 Meireki also Myōryaku or Meiryaku

Meireki 03 - . Great Fire of Meireki 明暦の大火 .
March 2–3, 1657 / 3 Meireki/1/18-19

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1658 万治 Manji
- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

1661 寛文 Kanbun Emperor Reigen, 1663–1687.
- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

1673 延宝 Enpō also Enhō - Enpo
- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1681 天和 Tenna also Tenwa

Tenna 02 - . Great Fire of Tenna 天和の大火 .
January 25, 1683 / 2 Tenna/12/28

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1684 貞享 Jōkyō Emperor Higashiyama, 1687–1709.

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1688 元禄 Genroku

Genroku 11 . Chokugaku Fire 勅額火事 .

. 元禄 Haiku Poets of the Genroku period .

- quote -
This period spanned the years from ninth month of 1688 through third month of 1704. The reigning emperor was Higashiyama Tennō (東山天皇).
..... The years of Genroku are generally considered to be the Golden Age of the Edo period. The previous hundred years of peace and seclusion in Japan had created relative economic stability. The arts and architecture flourished. There were unanticipated consequences when the shogunate debased the quality of coins as a strategy for financing the appearance of continuing Genroku affluence. This strategic miscalculation caused abrupt inflation. Then, in an effort to solve the ensuing crisis, the bakufu introduced what were called the Kyōhō Reforms. .....
- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !



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1704 宝永 Hōei      Emperor Nakamikado, 1709–1735.

Hoei 04 - 1707 . 富士山が噴火 Great Eruption of Mount Fujisan .

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1711 正徳 Shōtoku - Shotoku

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1716 享保 Kyōhō Emperor Sakuramachi, 1735–1747.

Kyoho 17 - 1732 . 享保の大飢饉 Great Famine of Kyoho .

Kyoohoo no kaikaku 享保の改革 Kyoho, Kyōhō reforms
- and Tokugawa Yoshimune,
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1736 元文 Genbun

1741 寛保 Kanpō also Kanhō

1744 延享 Enkyō Emperor Momozono, 1747–1762.

1748 寛延 Kan'en

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1751 宝暦 Hōreki also Hōryaku;
Empress Go-Sakuramachi, 1762–1771.

Horeki 10 - . Hōreki Fire 宝暦の大火 Horeki Fire .

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1764 明和 Meiwa       Emperor Go-Momozono, 1771–1779.

Meiwa 09 - . Great Fire of Meiwa 明和の大火 .

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1772 安永 An'ei (Anei) Emperor Kōkaku, 1780–1817.

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1781 天明 Tenmei

Tenmei 03 - 1783 . 浅間山が大噴火 Great eruption of Mount Asamasan . 浅間山が大噴火
- followed by
Tenmei 03 - . 天明の大飢饉 Great Famine of Tenmei .

Tenmei 04 - 1784 . Tenmei inflation of currency .
and the reforms of Tanuma Okitsugu 田沼意次

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1789 寛政 Kansei
1801 享和 Kyōwa

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1804 文化 Bunka      Emperor Ninkō, 1817–1846.

Bunka 03 - . Great Fire of Bunka 文化の大火 .
- - 江戸神田佐久間町の大火 Great fire in Sakumacho 1829

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1818 文政 Bunsei

Bunsei 12 - . Great Fire of Bunsei 文政の大火 .

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1830 天保 Tenpō also Tenhō

Tenpo 03 - 1832 . 天保の大飢饉 Great Famine of Tenpo .

Tenpoo no kaikaku 天保の改革 Tenpo no taikaku Reforms
and Mizuno Tadakuni.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Tenpooreki 天保暦 Tenporeki Calendar
- 天保壬寅元暦 Tenpō jin'in genreki - by Shibukawa Kagesuke
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1844 弘化 Kōka Emperor Kōmei, 1846–1867.

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1848 嘉永 Kaei

Kaei 06 - 1854 . Commodore Perry and the "black ships" ペリー来航 - 黒船 .

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1854 安政 Ansei
1860 万延 Man'en (Manen)
1861 文久 Bunkyū
1864 元治 Genji

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1865 慶応 Keiō

慶應義塾 Keio University
Keio University (慶應義塾大学 Keiō Gijuku Daigaku), abbreviated as Keio (慶應) or Keidai (慶大), is a Japanese private university located in Minato, Tokyo. It is known as the oldest institute of modern higher education in Japan. Founder Fukuzawa Yukichi originally established it as a school for Western studies in 1858 in Edo (now Tokyo).
- quote : wikipedia -

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1868 明治 Meiji - Emperor Meiji, 1868–1912.

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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. Reiwa Jidai 令和時代 Reiwa period .
Starts in May 2019. Heisei comes to an end.

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- source reference : wikipedia

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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5/30/2017

Australian ship 1830

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
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Australian ship seen in Edo, 1830
January 16, 1830.

- source : theguardian.com/australia-news/2017/may/28


A watercolour of a British-flagged ship that arrived off the coast of Mugi, in Shikoku, Japan in 1830, chronicled by low-ranking Samurai artist Makita Hamaguchi in documents from the Tokushima prefectural archive.
Photograph: Courtesy of Tokushima prefectural archive


- quote
Australian convict pirates in Japan: evidence of 1830 voyage unearthed
Exclusive: Fresh translations of samurai accounts of ‘barbarian’ ship arriving at the height of Japan’s feudal isolation corroborate a story long dismissed as fantasy


An amateur historian has unearthed compelling evidence that the first Australian maritime foray into Japanese waters was by convict pirates on an audacious escape from Tasmania almost two centuries ago.

Fresh translations of samurai accounts of a “barbarian” ship in 1830 give startling corroboration to a story modern scholars had long dismissed as convict fantasy: that a ragtag crew of criminals encountered a forbidden Japan at the height of its feudal isolation.

The brig Cyprus was hijacked by convicts bound from Hobart to Macquarie Harbour in 1829, in a mutiny that took them all the way to China.

Its maverick skipper was William Swallow, a onetime British cargo ship apprentice and naval conscript in the Napoleonic wars, who in a piracy trial in London the following year told of a samurai cannonball in Japan knocking a telescope from his hand.

Swallow’s fellow mutineers, two of whom were the last men hanged for piracy in Britain, backed his account of having been to Japan.

Western researchers, citing the lack of any Japanese record of the Cyprus, had since ruled the convicts’ story a fabrication.

But that conclusion has been shattered by Nick Russell, a Japan-based English teacher and history buff, in a remarkable piece of sleuthing that has won the endorsement of Australian diplomatic officials and Japanese and Australian archival experts.

Russell, after almost three years of puzzling over an obscure but meticulous record of an early samurai encounter with western interlopers, finally joined the dots with the Cyprus through a speculative Google search last month.

The British expatriate all but solved what was for the Japanese a 187-year mystery, while likely uncovering vivid new detail of an epic chapter of colonial Australian history.

“If you’d said I was going to go hunt and find a new pirate ship, I’d have gone, ‘you’re crazy’,” Russell told Guardian Australia. “I just stumbled on it. Boom. There it was on the screen in front of me.

“I immediately knew and as soon as I started checking, everything just fitted so perfectly.”

The ship anchored on 16 January 1830 off the town of Mugi,
on Shikoku island, where Makita Hamaguchi, a samurai sent disguised as a fisherman to check the ship for weapons, noted an “unbearable stench in the vicinity of the ship”.

The site is about 900m from where Russell’s holiday house now stands.

It was Hamaguchi’s watercolour sketch of an unnamed ship with a British flag that first intrigued Russell when he saw it on the website of the Tokushima prefectural archive in 2014.

With the help of a local volunteer manuscript reading group, Russell has since worked at translating written accounts of the ship’s arrival by Hamaguchi and another samurai, Hirota, now held by the Tokushima prefectural archive. Hamaguchi’s is called Illustrated Account of the Arrival of a Foreign Ship, while Hirota’s is A Foreign Ship Arrives Off Mugi Cove.

Russell first thought it may be a whaling ship, but the manuscript readers were skeptical. Having learned mutinies were common among whalers, Russell last month Googled the words “mutiny 1829”.
This stumbling upon a link between a samurai record and the story of the Cyprus was the research equivalent of finding a needle in a haystack, according to Warwick Hirst, the former curator of manuscripts at the State Library of New South Wales.
“It was a fantastic find,” Hirst, author of The Man Who Stole the Cyprus, told Guardian Australia. “I have no doubt that the Japanese account describes the visit of the Cyprus.”
What emerges is a picture of a desperate band of travellers, low on water and firewood, who provoked curiosity and suspicion among local warlords vexed by their appearance.
Bound to violently repel them by order of Japan’s ruling shogun, the samurai commanders showed some restraint, giving the foreigners advice on wind direction after raining down cannon balls and musket shot on their ship.

Hamaguchi wrote of sailors with “long pointed noses” who were not hostile, but asked in sign language for water and firewood. One had burst into tears and begun praying when an official rejected an earlier plea.

A skipper who looked 25 or 26 placed tobacco in “a suspicious looking object, sucked and then breathed out smoke”.

He had a “scarlet woollen coat” with “cuffs embroidered with gold thread and the buttons were silver-plated”, which was “a thing of great beauty, but as clothing it was gaudy”.

Hamaguchi’s watercolour sketch of the coat has what Russell said may be a telling detail on the sleeve: a bird that could be a swallow, the skipper’s own stamp on a British military officer’s jacket taken as a souvenir in the mutiny.

--- Photo --- A watercolour by samurai Makita Hamaguchi

The skipper gave instructions to a crew that “in accordance with what appeared to be some mark of respect” followed orders to remove their hats “to the man, most of them revealing balding heads”.

They “exchanged words amongst themselves like birds twittering”.

A dog on the ship “did not look like food. It looked like a pet.”

Another samurai chronicler called Hirota noted the crew offered gifts including an object he later drew, which looks like a boomerang.

One sailor bared his chest to the disguised samurai to reveal a tattoo of “the upper body of a beautiful woman”, Hamaguchi wrote.

Another produced “a big glass of what appeared to be an alcoholic beverage and indicated that we should drink”.

“We declined by waving our hands, upon which they passed the glass around themselves, one by one tapping their heads as they drank to indicate the good feeling it brought them, and finished the lot.”

Onshore, the samurai commanders were anxious to follow an 1825 edict by the shogun bolstering Japan’s isolationist policy.
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It stated: “All foreign vessels should be fired upon. Any foreigner who landed should be arrested or killed. Every interaction should be reported in the utmost detail.”

Hamaguchi quoted Mima, a local commander, saying he had been “suspicious of that ship since it arrived”.

“The men on the ship do not look hungry at all and in fact they seem to be mocking us by diving off the stern and climbing back onto the ship again,” Mima said. “It is very strange that everyone who goes out for a closer look returns feeling very sorry for them.

“I think they are pirates. We should crush them!”

Mima stayed up till dawn discussing what to do with his superior Yamauchi, who decided: “We should take out a large lead ball and tell them that if they don’t leave immediately, we will fire on them and reduce them to matchwood.”
Yamauchi later told an underling to give some water and firewood if the sailors agreed to leave.

The “barbarians” in sign language told the samurai go-betweens they needed five days to mend sails and paint the ship, one making “a fist with one hand and put it under his cocked head indicating sleep”.

When Yamauchi refused, the skipper asked for three days, then gave the samurai messengers a letter to pass on.
“Commander Yamauchi was not happy. ‘What did you accept a letter from them for? Take it back at once!’” Hamaguchi wrote.

When the ship did not raise its anchor, a cannon fired on the ship like a “thunder clap … followed by an eerie screeching noise as the old deeply pitted ball flew between the two masts of the barbarian ship”.

“Irritatingly, without sign of haste or panic, the crew leisurely spread one sail,” Hamaguchi said.

The ship spread another sail but did not move, prompting an infuriated Yamauchi to order more cannon fire.

With little wind but an onshore breeze, the ship could not sail out to sea and “instead, ignoring the hail of cannon and musketoon balls” sailed west between two samurai firing positions.

Hamaguchi wrote that “at about this time the feudal overseer realised it was a British ship and became extremely angry”, ordering fire on the ship’s waterline.

“Two cannon balls hit and shook the ship badly. The foreigners were standing and yelling.”
Another cannon ball smashed into the ship’s hull, and one or two crew lay on the deck appearing “killed or injured”.

--- Photo --- the watercolour picture of a British-flagged ship that arrived off the coast of Mugi, in Shikoku,

“The others turned towards commander Yamauchi’s boat, all removed their hats and appeared to be praying,” Hamaguchi wrote.

Yamauchi asked an underling when the wind would improve, then was “good enough to share this knowledge with the barbarians through sign language and they swiftly turned the brig across the wind”.

The smaller samurai boats surrounded the foreigners and “a foul stench was coming from the ship”.
When a samurai musketeer
“showed his courage by brandishing his big gun in their faces”, the “barbarians looked worried, cried out and trembled with fear”, Hamaguchi wrote.

----- continue reading
- source : theguardian.com/australia-news/2017/may/28

This article was amended on 29 May 2017. An earlier version mistranslated Yamauchi as Yamanouchi.
This has been corrected.

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Legend of an Australian Pirate Ship in Japan Confirmed




Convicts in Australia hijacked the British ship the Cyprus in 1829. When they were eventually captured,
William Swallow, leader of the pirates, and some of his men were put on trial. They gave an account of sailing to Japan in 1830, but no one believed them. Almost 200 years later, the story was considered a legend -until now.
Nick Russell searched through 19th century Japanese writings and found and translated an account from samurai Makita Hamaguchi that confirms a Western ship showed up at Shikoku island on January 16, 1830.

- source : neatorama.com/2017/05/28/Legend-of-an-Australian-Pirate-Ship -

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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3/20/2017

Keian Uprising

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
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Keian jiken 慶安事件 The Keian uprising in 1651
Keian no hen 慶安の変


The Keian period, from April 1, 1649 till 1652



- quote -
.. a failed coup d'état attempt carried out against the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan in 1651, by a number of rōnin. Though it failed, the event is historically significant as an indication of a wider problem of disgruntled ronin throughout the country at the time. Masterminded by Yui Shōsetsu and Marubashi Chūya, the uprising is named after the Keian era in which it took place.

According to strategist Yui's plan, Marubashi would take Edo Castle, the headquarters of the shogunate, using barrels of gunpowder to begin a fire which would rage through Edo, the capital. In the confusion, with the authorities distracted by firefighting efforts, the ronin would storm the castle and kill key high officials.

At the same time, Yui would lead a second group and seize the Tokugawa stronghold in Sunpu (modern-day city of Shizuoka). Further action was planned for Osaka Castle and Kyoto. They timed their rebellion to take advantage of the death of Shogun Tokugawa Iemitsu, as his successor, Ietsuna, was still a child. The conspirators aimed to force the shogunate to relax its policies of seizing hans and dispossessing daimyōs, which under Iemitsu had deprived tens of thousands of samurai of position and income, adding them to the ranks of ronin.

Ultimately, however, the uprising failed when the conspirators' plan was discovered. Marubashi Chūya fell ill, and, talking through his fever dreams, revealed secrets which made their way to the authorities by the time the rebels were ready to move. Marubashi was arrested and executed in Edo; Yui Shōsetsu escaped that fate by committing seppuku, in Sunpu, upon finding himself surrounded by police. Several of the rebels committed suicide alongside him. The families of the conspirators as well were then tortured and killed by the authorities, as was usual at the time; several were crucified.

In the aftermath of the suppression of the uprising, the Shogunal Elders (Rōjū) met to discuss the origins of the uprising, and how to prevent similar events from occurring in the future. Originally, most of the Elders sought to take severe measures, including expelling all ronin from the city, but they were eventually convinced by Abe Tadaaki to take a more rational tack. He suggested reducing the number of ronin opposed to the shogunate, not through expulsion, but by introducing more favorable policies. In particular, he convinced the council that the shogunate ought to do away with the law of escheatment, and to work to help ronin settle into proper jobs. Forcefully expelling a great number of people from the city, he argued, would only serve to create more opposition to the government.

Far from being an isolated incident, the Keian Uprising was followed by an event the following year involving several hundred ronin, and another soon afterwards in Sado. Granted, these were not directly related, that is, none of the persons involved were the same, nor did they follow a single leader or organized ideology. Despite this, or perhaps because of it, it is significant to note how widespread the distaste for the shogunate was at this time, and the degree of the "problem" of the ronin throughout the country.



The tale was then retold in a novel, Keian Taiheiki (慶安太平記), and in a number of Kabuki plays, the most famous of which, also called Keian Taiheiki, was written by renowned playwright Kawatake Mokuami.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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Yui Shoosetsu - Shōsetsu 由井正雪 Yui Shosetsu (1605 - 1651)

- quote -
a military strategist, and leader of the unsuccessful 1651 Keian Uprising. Though a commoner, and thus not officially of the samurai class, Yui was known as one of the "Three Great Ronin" along with Kumazawa Banzan and Yamaga Sokō.

Born in Sunpu to humble origins, Yui is said to have been a talented youth; he was taken in by a number of rōnin from the area, who taught him recent history, and likely swordsmanship and military strategy as well.



As an adult, he found employment as an instructor at a samurai academy, teaching swordsmanship and related disciplines. But these academies, which could be found throughout the country, served not only the pure function of schools of martial arts; certainly, discipline, ethics, and related arts were taught as well. But the schools also served as social and intellectual spaces, in which political ideas were discussed, and grievances aired in a familiar environment where comrades and friends met. Students were almost exclusively members of the samurai class, but running the full gamut of rankings, from daimyo to ronin. As regulations were made stricter at this time, and many ronin expelled from their domains, the number of students grew dramatically.



He later opened a school of military strategy and martial arts in the Renjaku-chō neighborhood of Kanda in Edo, as well as an armorer's shop and ironworks. Here he continued to gain contacts, friends, and prestige among the ronin and others; one of them was Marubashi Chūya, a samurai and fellow instructor of martial disciplines and strategy, with whom he would plan the Keian Uprising some years later.

Beginning in 1645, Yui plotted a coup against the Tokugawa shogunate along with Marubashi, a small group of rōnin, and a number of their students. It was to take place in 1651, shortly after the death of Shogun Tokugawa Iemitsu, and would later come to be known as the Keian Uprising. Unfortunately for Yui and his comrades, the plot was discovered before it truly began. Yui was in Sunpu, preparing to execute a secondary series of attacks when Marubashi was arrested in Edo; surrounded by shogunate officials, he committed seppuku rather than be captured.


由井正雪の乱 Yui Shosetsu no ran

Following his death, the officials performed a variety of obscenities upon his body, and then proceeded to subject his parents and other close relatives to crucifixion. Yui Shōsetsu, though ultimately unsuccessful in his political plots, is a notable figure as representative of the growing political unrest in the early Edo period, as a result of strict laws put forth, and enforced, by the shogunate. He and his conspirators were only one of many groups throughout the country meeting in samurai academies and other venues, discussing politics and current events. Most, of course, did not act upon their beliefs as Yui and Marubashi did, but that discussion existed among a great number of people, despite, or perhaps because of the shogunate's strict enforcement of its laws, is significant.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


There is even a line of Sake rice wine named after Yui Shosetsu.




正雪 無量寿(むりょうじゅ)大吟醸 Shosetsu Muryoju brand

- 由比正雪にちなんだ酒銘 -
- reference source : tajima-ya.com/shousetsu. -

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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

................................................................................. Shizuoka 静岡県

Shoosetsu mushi 正雪虫 / Shoosetsu tonbo 正雪トンボ The Shosetsu Dragonfly
This animal begun to appear in Shizuoka after the violent death of Yui Shosetsu. They say his soul reincarnated to haunt the place of his birth and death.
It is also called カトンボ Chikara tonbo and begins to fly in early summer. It is only seen in Shizuoka!
This animal, a kind of kawatonbo 川とんぼ river dragonfly, is now extinct.


source : okab.exblog.jp/9934655


. tonbo (tombo, tonboo) 蜻蛉 dragonfly .
and
蜉蝣 kagero 正雪蜻蛉 紋蜉蝣 /白腹蜻蛉 /斑蜻蛉
Ephemeroptera
- kigo for early autumn -



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Marubashi Chuuya - Chūya 丸橋忠弥 Marubashi Chuya (? - 1651)
Yari no Chuya 槍の忠弥 Chuya with the long spear



(Ichikawa Sadanji as Chuya) 初代市川左團次の丸橋忠弥

- quote -
Chūya was a ronin (masterless samurai) from Yamagata, and instructor in martial arts and military strategy, most famous for his involvement in the 1651 Keian Uprising which sought to overthrow Japan's Tokugawa shogunate. He is said to have been a man of great strength and good birth whose distaste for the shogunate stemmed primarily from a desire for revenge for the death of his father, killed by the shogunal army at the 1615 siege of Osaka. The identity of his father is not clear, but may have been Chōsokabe Motochika.
... his weapon of choice became the Jūmonji Yari 十文字槍 a cross-shaped spear. The martial art of wielding the yari is called sōjutsu. ,
... Marubashi met Yui Shōsetsu, ...
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


(Ichikawa Sadanji) 初代市川左團次の丸橋忠弥

Chuya's grave at the temple
. 神霊山 Shinreizan  金乗院 Konjo-In  慈眼寺 Jigen-Ji .
豊島区高田2-12-39 / 2 Chome-12-39 Takada, Toshima ward





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. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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1/01/2017

- reference edojidai campus info

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
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- reference - Edo Jidai campus Info

- reference source : www.edojidai.info... -



江戸時代の人口は何人くらいいたのでしょうか?
江戸時代の服装にはどのような特徴があったのか
拷問で自白させるのが当たり前だった江戸時代の取り調べ
武家言葉とべらんめえ調で話された江戸時代の会話
江戸時代の通貨は金貨・銀貨・銅銭の3種類でした
世界一識字率の高かったと言われる江戸時代の日本人
江戸時代に虫歯になったらどんな治療をしたのでしょうか?
江戸時代にはどのような食事をしていたのでしょうか
誰でもなれて資格試験もなかった江戸時代のお医者さん
江戸時代の主な年号とさまざまな出来事 **

夏と冬で時間の長さが違った江戸時代~鐘の音で時を知った
現代人よりも10cm以上低い江戸時代の人の平均身長
江戸時代の火事とほとんど破壊行為だった消火方法
江戸時代の髪型にはどのような特徴があったのでしょうか
平均寿命は30才から40才だったと言われる江戸時代の人々
世界トップレベルの数学だったと言われる江戸時代の和算
江戸時代のお風呂は混浴だったって本当!?
江戸時代の代表的な文化と特徴についての豆知識
現代と江戸時代の物価がどれくらい違うか比較してみました
究極のリサイクル社会だった江戸時代

庶民の社交場的なサロンだった江戸時代のお風呂
糞尿は農家に売るのが当たり前だった~江戸時代のトイレ事情
「士農工商」の身分制度序列は本当はウソだった?
江戸時代の名前に関するうんちく~庶民にも苗字があった?
江戸時代の人はどうやって英語を学んだのでしょうか?
現代とくらべるとかなり厳しかった江戸時代の刑罰と法制度
江戸時代の人はどのように避妊していたのでしょうか?
座ったまま縄につかまって出産をした江戸時代の女性たち
江戸時代の女性は生理のときどのように処理していたのか?
とても質素でつつましいものだった江戸時代の庶民の生活

江戸時代の主役である侍たちのちょっと面白い生き様
時代劇は本当の江戸時代を表現していたのか?
徳川歴代将軍の意外なエピソード
江戸時代の嘘のような本当の話あれこれ
意外に知らない江戸時代の真実の暮らし
江戸のちょっと面白うんちく話

- reference source : www.edojidai.info... -

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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12/10/2016

The Edo Clan

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. Persons and People of Edo - Personen .
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The Edo Clan of the Musashi Taira 武蔵江戸氏 Musashi Edo-Shi

They lived in the hamlet 江戸郷 Edo Go, their Homeland in the Musashi Plain. It was located in the
日比谷の入江 Hibiya no Irie inlet.
Edo 江戸 means "estuary", lit. "inlet door", "entrance to the inlet".

Other clans who lived in the Edo area before Tokugawa Ieyasu established the Bakufu government:



畠山氏 Hatakeyama clan in 深谷 Fukaya
河越氏 Kawagoe clan in 川越 Kawagoe
豊島氏 Toyoshima clan in 川口 Kawaguchi


. Hibiya 日比谷 / 比々谷 district in Edo .

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- quote
The Edo clan were a minor offshoot of the Taira clan,
and first fortified the settlement known as Edo, which would later become Tokyo. The Imperial Palace now stands at this location.
During the Azuchi-Momoyama period, the clan was renamed the 武蔵喜多見氏 Musashi Kitami clan.
The clan originated in Chichibu in Musashi Province (now Saitama Prefecture). In the late 12th century,
江戸重継 Edo Shigetsugu (Chichibu Shigetsugu) moved south and fortified the little hill at Edo, located where the Sumida River enters Tokyo Bay. This area later became the Honmaru and Ninomaru portions of Edo Castle. There, the Edo grew in military strength under the second patriarch, Edo Shigenaga.

In August 1180, Shigenaga attacked Muira Yoshizumi, an ally of the rival Minamoto clan. Three months later, he switched sides just as Minamoto Yoritomo entered Musashi. Shigenaga assisted the Minamoto in overthrowing the Taira in Kyoto. In return, Yoritomo granted Shigenaga seven new estates in Musashi Province, including Kitami in what is now Tokyo's western Setagaya Ward.

Records show that in 1457, Edo Shigeyasu surrendered his main base at Edo to Ota Dokan. Dokan was a vassal of the powerful Ōgigayatsu branch of the Uesugi clan under Uesugi Sadamasa. Sadamasa was the Kanto-Kanrei for the Ashikaga. Dokan built Edo castle on the site. The Edo clan then moved to Kitami.

In 1593, in a pledge of obedience to Tokugawa Ieyasu, Edo Katsutada changed the clan name to Kitami. Katsutada was employed by the first and second Tokugawa shoguns, reaching the position of Magistrate of Sakai, south of Osaka. Katsutada's grandson-in-law, Shigemasa, found favor with the fifth shogun Tokugawa Tsunayoshi. He rose from the position of hatamoto, with a stipend of one thousand koku, to sobayonin, or "Grand Chamberlain", with a stipend of twenty thousand. It was an influential post, responsible for relaying messages between the shogun and his senior councilors. He was also awarded a large domain in 1686. However, the clan's fortunes suddenly plummeted. In 1689, Shigemasa's nephew violated the Shogunate taboo on bloodshed. Shigemasa had to forfeit his status and property and was banished to Ise, where he died in 1693 at age 36. The 500-year-old Edo clan essentially ceased as a recognized clan.
Tombstones of several generations of the clan are at 慶元寺 Keigen-Ji, a Buddhist temple founded in 1186 by Edo Shigenaga, in Kitami.
The name later changed to 常陸江戸氏 Hitachi Edo-Shi.
- source : wikipedia



江戸重長 Edo Taro Shigenaga  
was the second head of the Edo clan. He first settled and lent his name to the fishing village Edo that eventually grew to become Tokyo.
He was also known as Edo Taroo 江戸太郎 Edo Taro.
In 1180, Shigenaga was asked by Minamoto Yoritomo to cooperate in his uprising against rule of the Taira in Kyoto. Hesitant at first, Shigenaga eventually helped Yoritomo overthrow the Taira rule. Yoritomo granted Shigenaga seven new estates in Musashi Province, including Kitami in what is now Tokyo's western Setagaya Ward.

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source : 4travel.jp/travelogue/10825822

Graves of the Musashi Kitami Clan - 江戸氏之墓所
慶元寺 Keigen-Ji - see below

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- quote -
The ones who got there first
Four centuries before Tokugawa Ieyasu arrived at Edo, a fierce band of mounted warriors had already fortified the hill where Ieyasu would build his magnificent Edo Castle, and on which the Imperial Palace now stands.

In the late 12th century, the Edo clan, as these warriors called themselves, had moved south from Chichibu in present-day Saitama Prefecture led by their patriarch, Edo Shigetsugu. Seizing Edo, they rapidly built up their military presence in the southern Kanto Plain to such a point that, in 1180, Shigenaga, the second clan head, was asked by Minamoto Yoritomo (1147-99) to cooperate in his uprising against the great Taira family in Kyoto.

Shigenaga was not easily persuaded, but eventually lent his power to Yoritomo in overthrowing Taira rule. In appreciation, Yoritomo granted Shigenaga seven new estates in Musashi Province, including Kitami in what is now Tokyo’s western Setagaya Ward.

Little is known about the Edo clan in the turbulent Kamakura Period that began with Yoritomo’s founding of a shogunate in that city in 1192; nor do we know of their fate during the Kyoto-based shogunate known as the Muromachi Period, that ran from 1338-1573. However, records show that in 1457, Edo Shigeyasu surrendered his main base at Edo to Ota Dokan (1432-86), a vassal of Uesugi Sadamasa, Governor of the Kanto Plain, and moved to Kitami. Dokan then built a castle on the site with views of Mount Fuji and Edo Bay, before being killed by an assassin sent by his own master in 1486. The castle was then abandoned until it was taken over by Ieyasu in 1590.

In a pledge of obedience to Ieyasu, Edo Katsutada changed the clan name to Kitami in 1593. Katsutada was employed by the first and second shoguns, reaching the position of Magistrate of Sakai, south of Osaka.

His grandson-in-law, Shigemasa, bathed in the special favor of the fifth shogun and rose to the rank of daimyo by 1682. Promoted to a sobayonin (grand chamberlain), whose influential role was to relay messages between the shogun and his senior councilors, he was awarded a further large domain in 1686.

From this zenith of happiness, however, Shigemasa’s fortunes plummeted — and with them, those of the Edo clan. In 1689, Shigemasa’s nephew violated the shogunal taboo on bloodshed and the family was held collectively responsible. As punishment, Shigemasa forfeited his status and all property and was banished to Ise, where he died in 1693 at age 36. His kin was similarly punished, and with that the 500-year-old Edo clan vanished.

To this day, however, memories of the first possessor of Edo linger on at Keigen-ji in Kitami, Setagaya Ward, an impressive Buddhist temple founded in 1186 by Edo Shigenaga. Tombstones of several generations of the clan, some quite eroded but others recently renovated, huddle together in a corner of the graveyard, tied eternally by their invisible bond of kinship.
- source : Japan Times 2003 - Sumiko Enbutsu -

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Keigenji 慶元寺 Keigen-Ji
永劫山 花林院 慶元寺 Eigosan Karin-In Keigen-Ji

世田谷区喜多見4-17-1 / 4 Chome-17-1 Kitami, Setagaya ward
浄土宗 Jodo Sect.

Apart from the main temple hall, it has a 鐘楼 bell tower and a 三重堂 three-story pagoda.


source and more photos : tesshow.jp/setagaya

The main statue is 阿弥陀如来 Amida Nyorai.
Edo Taro Shigenaga founded this temple, then called 岩戸山大沢院東福寺 Tofuku-Ji in 1186, which then belonged to the 天台宗 Tendai sect.
In 1451 it was relocated to 成城(元喜多見) Seijo (Moto Kitami) and found its final place in 1468.
In 1540, the priest 空誉上人 / 空与(空與)/ 空与守欣上人 Kuyo Shonin revitalized the temple, which had lost its importance. The name changed 上山華林院慶元寺 and now it belonges to the Jodo Sect.
In 1636, Shogun Iemitsu awarded the temple with land of 10石 (about 1ha(10000㎡), annexing 6 temples in the neighborhood.

Number 4 in the pilgrimage to 33 Kannon temples along the Tamagawa 多摩川三十三ヶ所観音霊場.




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Kitami eki 喜多見駅 Kitami station
on the Odakyu Railway Line, on the border between Setagaya Ward and Komae City.
The name of the area,
Kitami
, (also written 北見)
is thought to originate from an ancient Ainu word meaning "flat, wooded place".
- quote wikipedia -



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- Some further History -
... The Kantō Plain appears to have first been populated in the Late Jōmon Period sometime after 3100 BC. ...
... Kofun Period (200-500 AD) : It seems that around the 300’s, Kantō became a vassal state of the Yamato Court. There are more than 200 Kofun in the Tōkyō Metropolis.
丸山古墳 Maruyama Kofun “Round Mountain” Kofun is in 芝公園 Shiba Kōen park ...


... “A feudal warlord named Ōta Dōkan came into the small fishing village of Edo and built his castle there.”...
... “Though it was once an insignificant village in the marshy wetlands,
Tokugawa Ieyasu transformed Edo into a glorious capital befitting of the shōgun.”...
... The Edo clan still had a residence in Kitami, which is present day Setagawa Ward. In light of Tokugawa Ieyasu’s dominance over the area, it would be presumptuous (and confusing) for a clan to retain the name of the capital city when a new daimyō, appointed by the unifier of Japan, controlled that city. So in 1593, taking an oath of submission and fealty to Tokugawa Ieyasu, the last Edo Clan daimyō gave up the name Edo and assumed the name, Kitami, which was where their primary holdings were. ...
... In 1693, the direct family line, no longer Edo but Kitami, was extinguished after the banishment of Kitami Shigeyasu to Ise when his grandson murdered somebody or something.
... At the height of Tokugawa power, the castle is said to have been the biggest in the world and the city was likely the most populous.
- More details and history about the name of EDO -
- source : japanthis.com/2013 -

. Oota Dookan 太田道灌 Ota Dokan (1432 - 1486) .

. kofun 古墳 burial mounds in Tokyo .


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- - - - - Now we come to September 3rd, 1868 :
慶応4年7月17日(西暦では1868年9月3日)
Edo o shooshite Tōkyō to nasu shoosho 江戸を称して東京と為すの詔書
江戸ヲ称シテ東京ト為スノ詔書


Imperial Edict Renaming Edo to Tōkyō.

私は、今政治に自ら裁決を下すこととなり、全ての民をいたわっている。
江戸は東国で第一の大都市であり、四方から人や物が集まる場所である。当然、私自らその政治をみるべきである。よって、以後江戸を東京と称することとする。これは、私が国の東西を同一視するためである。
国民はこの私の意向を心に留めて行動しなさい。

"I at this time settle all matters of state myself in the interest of the people.
Edo is the largest city in the eastern provinces, a place in which things gather from every direction. It were well that
I should personally oversee its governance. Therefore from this time on I shall call it“Tokyo”(Eastern Capital).
This is so that I might oversee all affairs in the land equally, from east to west.
Let the people heed this my will."

- reference source : wikipedia -

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- reference : Edo Shigenaga -
- reference : Kitami Edo Tokyo -

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .


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