Showing posts with label - - - Business in Edo. Show all posts
Showing posts with label - - - Business in Edo. Show all posts

4/12/2017

ondo dance game

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. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .
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ondo 音頭 popular song, music and dance



- quote -
The literal translation of "ondo" is "sound head." Kanji, or the Chinese characters used in the Japanese language, often have literal and abstract meanings, here the kanji for "sound" (音-on) having a more abstract meaning of "melody" or "music," and the kanji for "head," (頭) having a more abstract meaning of "beat," "base pattern." Hence "ondo" probably refers to a kind of "sound" or "beat pattern."
There are other names used to describe older Japanese genres of music. For example, "fushi" or "bushi" (節), with its literal meaning of "node," "knuckle," or "joint," refers to the nodes found in bamboo, usually found at a steady sequence. Thus "fushi" can also have the abstract idea of "sequence" to refer to notes and beats in a sequence, i.e., a melody.
An "ondo," however,
usually refers to a kind of song with a distinct swung 2/2 rhythm. This "swing" can be referred to as "ukare" in Japanese. "Ondo" is a term used in older Japanese genres, but it is still used today when referring to songs written in this swinging style. Sometimes the rhythm is NOT swung and it is played straight through. This is called "kizami".

Folk music and Obon
Part of the Japanese Obon celebration involves participating in the local community dance. The tradition of the Bon dance, or Bon odori (盆踊り), dates back a few hundred years, and it is usually accompanied by the local tune. In recent times, new music has been used for Bon dance accompaniment, including late enka hits and music written specifically for bon dancing. The "ondo" rhythm has always been common in Japanese folk music, but even the newer music written for Bon dances has been written in this style. ...
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


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Ondo ken おんどけん Dancing Ken Game

Actor Nakamura Utaemon IV as a Toad playing the Shamisen 
四代目中村歌右衛門の蛙,
Utagawa Kunimaro I (active about 1850–1875), signed Ikkokusai Kunimaro giga 一国斎国麿戯画


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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

草川の水の音頭も春祭
kusakawa no mizu no ondo mo haru matsuri

the sound
of water and plants
like a spring festival

Tr. Gabi Greve

. Fujita Sooshi 藤田湘子 Fujita Soshi .
(1926 - 2005)

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夜桜に青侍が音頭かな
yosakura ni aozamurai ga ondo kana

under cherry blossoms at night
the songs and dance
of young Samurai . . .


高井几董 Takai Kito

aozamurai (aosamurai) is a young Samurai of lower rank.
... a fifth-rank Samurai who serves for a royal family or a court noble.


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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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- - - - - #ondoken #ondodance #dancegame - - - -
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11/02/2016

Authors Edo Period

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. Persons and People of Edo - Personen .
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Authors and writers of the Edo period

. Books, Printing and Publishing in Edo .

. Edo no gaidobukku 江戸のガイドブック Guidebooks for Edo .
Asai Ryoi / Kinko Entsu / Kagiya Heiemon / Toda Mosui / Kikuoka Senryo / Tajihi Chikatomo / Mishima Masayuki / Kamiya Nobuyori

under construction
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江戸艶本(えほん)ベストセラー Edo Ehon Bestsellers
林美一 Hayashi Yoshikazu (1922 - 1999)


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- - - - - besutoseraa ベストセラー bestseller authors :

Jippensha Ikku 十返舎一九 (1765 – 1831)

. Tōkaidōchū Hizakurige 東海道中膝栗毛 Shank's Mare .
Yajirobē (彌次郎兵衛) and Kitahachi (喜多八) walking along the Tokaido road.

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Santo Kyoden 山東京伝 (1761 - 1816)
心学早染草 Shingaku Hayasomegusa / "Quick-dye Mind Study"

. . . CLICK here for more Photos !

Santō Kyōden - Kyōya Denzō 京屋伝蔵
He wrote Kibyōshi, Sharebon, Yomihon and Historical works
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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Takizawa Bakin 滝沢馬琴 / Kyokutei Bakin 曲亭馬琴 (1767 - 1848)
曲亭 馬琴 Kyokutei Bakin, 澤興邦 Takizawa Okikuni

. 南総里見八犬伝 Nansō Satomi Hakkenden . (fb)
The Chronicles of the Eight Dog Heroes of the Satomi Clan of Nansô

. Types of Dragons explained in the Satomi Hakkenden .

In 1803 the first Haikai Saijiki Shiorigusa (Kanzoo) 俳諧歳時記栞草 was compiled by Takizawa Bakin, with about 2600 seasonal themes and topics (kidai) and 3300 kigo.
. History of Saijiki .

- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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Ryutei Tanehiko 柳亭種彦 (1783 - 1842)

偐紫田舎源氏 Nise Murasaki inaka Genji
The Rustic Genji, False Murasaki and a Country Genji
or
A Fraudulent Murasaki's Bumpkin Genji

- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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- - - - - ABC List - - - - -

. Baba Bunkoo, Baba Bunkō 馬場文耕 Baba Bunko . (1718 - 1759)

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Domyaku Sensei 銅脈先生 (1752 - 1801)

太平楽府がふ
勢多唐巴詩せたのからはし

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. Hanabusa Itchoo, Itchō 英一蝶 Hanabusa Itcho . (1652 – 1724)
painter, calligrapher, and haiku poet.

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. Hiraga Gennai 平賀源内 . (1728 - 1780)

Author, Inventor, Naturalist, free spirit of Edo

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. Hirata Atsutane 平田篤胤 - kokugakusha . (1776 – 1843)

Tengu 仙境異聞 Senkyo Ibun / 寅吉物語 Torakichi Monogatari
- translated by Wilburn Hansen
When Tengu Talk: Hirata Atsutane's Ethnography of the Other World

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Ichikawa Kansai 市河寛斎 (1749 - 1820)

Songs of the Northern Quarter
日本詩紀 -
全唐詩逸

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Kawatake Mokuami 河竹黙阿弥 (1816 - 1893)

三人吉三廓初買

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. Karai Senryu 柄井川柳 . (1718 - 1790)

Haifu-Yanagidaru 誹風柳多留 Senryu Poetry Collection


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Nishimura Hakucho 西村白鳥  ( around 1773 )

Enka Kidan 煙霞綺談 Strange tales of smoke and mist, ghost stories and historical notes

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Ryutei Rijo 滝亭鯉丈 (?- 1841)

Hanagoyomi 花暦八笑人 Eight footloose fools


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Shiba Zenko 芝全交  (1750 - 1793)


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Shikitei Sanba 式亭三馬 (1776 - 1822)

In the world of men, nothing but lies

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Tadano Makuzu 只野真葛  (1765 - 1825)

Tales from the North 奥州波奈志(おうしゆうはなし)


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Tamenaga Shunsui 為永春水 (1790 - 1843)

The Plum Calendar 春色梅児誉美うめごよみ

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Terakado Seiken 寺門静軒 (1796 - 1868)

An account of the prosperity of Edo 江戸繁昌記 Edo hanjoki



- quote -
Terakado Seiken's "Blossoms Along the Sumida" Bokusui Ooka
- source : Andrew Markus - PDF file (21 pages)

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Tsuruya Nanboku IV 鶴屋南北  (1755 - 1829)
Ebiya Genzō

Dramatist and Kabuki playwrite

He wrote plays with supernatural themes and macabre and grotesque characters.
- reference : tsuruya nanboku -

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. Ueda Akinari 上田秋成 . (1734 - 1809)

雨月物語 Ugetsu Monogatari - Tales of Moonlight and Rain

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Umebori Kokuga 梅暮里谷峨 (1750 - 1821)

At a fork on the road to hiring a hooker
青楼五ツ雁金」「傾城買二筋道」「廓さとの癖」

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Yamaoka Matsuake  山岡浚明 (1726 - 1780)

跖婦人伝 Seki the Night Hawk



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:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]- - - - - #authorsedo #bestsellersedo - - - -
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10/18/2016

sentaku washing in Edo

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. Interior Design - The Japanese Home .
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sentaku 洗濯 washing, doing the laundry in Edo

In rural Japan, washing was often done at a river side. Some villages also had a special small waterway run through the main street and homes could use this water.
Remote homes all had a special well or wakimizu 湧き水, fresh water welling out from the mountains and kept in a container, to be used for drinking, washing, bathing etc.

In towns, wells were the place to get water and cleaning the wells was important.

. sarashi-i . 晒井 cleaning the well .
kigo for early summer
and
idohori shi 井戸堀師 craftsman digging a well or making a new well



The Water Deity of Katsuyama, Okayama

The goodwill of the God of Water is very important to a rice-growing and farming society.
. Suijin sama 水神様 The God of Water .
Mizu no Kamisama 水の神様 / Sui-ten Suiten 水天


Doing the laundry for a big family in the Edo period . . . without electricity, was hard work.



Water was placed in a bucket and the cloth was rubbed on
sentakuita, sentaku-ita 洗濯板 a wooden board.

Natural soap consisted of wood ash and fat or some alkali substance.

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source : Tokyo Metropolitan Library
洗い張り arai-hari by 歌川国安 Utagawa Kuniyasu (1794 - 1832)

A kimono was usually taken apart and the pieces washed and later sowed together again:
arai-hari, araihari, arai hari 洗い張り / 洗張り wash and stretch
tokiarai, toki-arai 解き洗い / 解洗い take apart and wash

This form of washing was used for Kimono and haori 羽織 jackets.



- quote -
In the past, a kimono would often be entirely taken apart for washing, and then re-sewn for wearing. This traditional washing method is called arai hari. Because the stitches must be taken out for washing, traditional kimono need to be hand sewn.
After washing, he fabric is stretched on a delicate frame of bamboo and strings or pasted on a wooden board.
Arai hari is very expensive and difficult and is one of the causes of the declining popularity of kimono.
Modern fabrics and cleaning methods have been developed that eliminate this need, although the traditional washing of kimono is still practiced, especially for high-end garments.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !



source : lb.nagasaki-u.ac.jp/siryo-search

arai-hari in the Meiji period
The wooden plates were covered with nori 糊 natural glue and the pieces stretched on them.
The plates were made of sugi 杉 one piece of cedar wood.
The glue was funori 布海苔 made from sea weed (red algae, Gloiopeltis frucata.


Drying the robes on bamboo poles or placing the parts of a kimono on wooden boards -
this gave reason to a special business in Edo:
. hari-ita uri 張り板売り vendors of wooden boards to dry a kimono after washing .

. kimono 着物 traditional Japanese robe .


- reference : arai hari -


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. idobata kaigi 井戸端会議 debates (gossip) at the well .
Women used to come to the village wells and designated places along rivers to do the laundry
and the mental laundry (gossip)。

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. oni no inu ma ni sentaku 鬼の居ぬ間に洗濯 .
Doing the laundry while the devil is away.
the mice enjoy the home while the cat is away

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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

................................................................................. Shizuoka 静岡県
浜松市 Hamamatsu

sentakugitsune, sentaku kitsune 洗濯狐 the Fox doing laundry
Near the river 平釜川 Hiragama thre was a temple with many trees in the compound. At night, a fox came to the river and people could hear the sound of ザブザブ zabu zabu as if he was doing the laundry.


CLICK for more photos !

. kitsune densetsu 狐 伝説 fox legends - Introduction .

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- reference : nichibun yokai database -
洗濯 68 to explore / 14 洗濯物
洗濯狐 - ok

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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

. Kobayashi Issa 小林一茶 in Edo .

洗たくの婆々へ柳の夕なびき
sentaku no baba e yanagi no yuu nabiki

to the old woman
doing laundry, the evening
willow bows

Tr. David Lanoue


source : lotusgreenfotos.blogspot.jp - Doris Boulton


. WKD : yanagi 柳 willow .
- - kigo for late spring - -


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:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]- - - - - #sentakuwashing #washingsentaku - - - -
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6/26/2016

hooki broom

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. Edo shokunin 江戸の職人 Craftsmen of Edo .
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hooki 箒 / ほうき Hoki, broom, Besen

A broom is necessary to keep things clean, the home, the road . . .
hatsubooki 初箒(はつぼうき)first (use of the) broom
hakizome 掃初 (はきぞめ) first cleaning
... fukihajime 拭始(ふきはじめ)beginning to clean
... hatsusooji 初掃除(はつそうじ) first cleaning

- kigo for the New Year-

. WKD : hatsubooki 初箒 first (use of the) broom .

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shuro hooki 棕櫚 ほうき broom made from Shuro palm
For a tawashi, the sheets of hemp palm are first dissipated into fibers and then bound together.
For a broom they are first rounded up into bundles, fixed with bronze wires into a shape of five or seven bundles, and in the final process dissipated for about half of the length on a special maschine.

. tawashi たわし / 束子 scrubbing brush .

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. Edo shokunin 江戸職人 craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

hookishi 箒師 making brooms in Edo
hookiya 箒屋 vendor of brooms




Look at more samples of Edo Hoki here :

白木屋傳兵衛 Shirakiya Denbei
- source : edohouki.com -

- quote
- - - Brooms originated in Shinto Rituals
Brooms were first used for sweeping purposes in Heian period. Bamboo, straw, or hemp were used to make brooms at the time. It was after the Edo era began when broom cypress began to be used for making brooms. Brooms in Japan were essentially used as a magical tool - for example, to stroke down a pregnant woman’s stomach with a broom today is still customary, after 400 years. Perhaps an aristocrat’s profound desire for peace was the beginning for this quiet and gentle tool.



- - - A Reevaluation of Traditional Techniques
“Shirokiya Denbe” was founded in 1830 in Ginza, first as a tatami-mat maker. Later on, after specializing in making brooms, the techniques have been handed down from generation to generation. Following the Showa period, as “modern” living came around, vacuum cleaners lowered the demand for brooms. ...

- - - The Attraction of Edo Style Brooms
If you have never used an Edo style broom before, you might consider Edo brooms to be just an old thing. However, if you use it just once, you will know immediately how attractive a tool it can be for your life. There are a number of benefits of using Edo style brooms, such as they are soft and elastic so that one can sweep without laying unnecessary stress on it. Different from vacuum cleaners, you do not need to worry about the noise or any emissions. While it depends on how you deal with it, brooms using natural materials can last 5 to 10 years, and as you use them more, it can clean a wooden or tatami-mat floor more.

- - - The Key to Edo Style Broom Making

The most important part of making an Edo broom is “Ho-yori,” which is selecting fine “ears.” The essential process starts here, and normally it takes 3 years for a craftsperson to become independent. Ears are sorted into 3 to 12 kinds by hardness, length, and color, but one-third of the ears will be thrown away at this stage. After sorting them out, he makes four or five small bundles, and he puts stems on them, without the tip of the ears going between the center part and the outside bundles, in order to keep a small space. Then, he gives it elasticity, which is the main characteristic of Edo-style brooms.
He attaches several tama-bundles in a row and tightens them together to the utmost with a wet hemp rope, adjusting their balance. After firmly fixing the joint of the bamboo handle to the body with an aluminum wire, he cuts the ear tips straight.
Then, he presses the body under a Japanese cushion. This entire process is done manually without air-conditioner, so as to not dry out the ears.
It definitely takes a long time to raise craftspeople with all of these techniques, so it has been a serious issue to find succesors.

- - - The Difference Between Japanese Brooms and Imports
- - - How to Use an Edo Style Broom Carefully

Shirokiya Denbe / 3-9-8 Kyobashi, Chuo-ku Tokyo
- source : tokyochuo.net/issue

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Apart from the Shuro palm, there were brooms of other materials.




. habooki 羽箒 "feather broom" .
羽根箒 - to clean the space around silk worms


kusabooki 草帚 "broom from grass", often with a long handle to clean the Tatami mats
. . . CLICK here for more Photos !


takebooki 竹帚 bamboo broom
The most commonly used bamboo types are
moosoochiku 孟宗竹 Moso Bamboo, Phyllostachys pubescens and
hachiku 淡竹 Phyllostachys nigra.
. . . CLICK here for more Photos !



tebooki 手箒 hand broom

- reference and more photos : utinogarakuta.blog.fc2.com -

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source : teramoto.co.jp/history

Seller and buyer of Hoki brooms in Edo
「hooki uri ほうき売り」and「hooki kai ほうき買い」
It was truly a recycle society.



source : edokurashi.hatenablog.com
selling baskets and brooms

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source : utinogarakuta.blog.fc2.com

Takasago 高砂 Noh play
河鍋暁斎 Kyosai (1831-1889)

. Takasago 高砂 a happy couple.
This legend is one of the oldest in Japanese mythology. An old couple - his name is Joo (尉) and hers is Uba (媼)....
The old woman is using a broom to sweep away trouble
and he carries a rake to rake in good fortune. In Japanese this is also a play of words with "One Hundred Years" (haku > sweeping the floor) and "until 99 years" (kujuku made > kumade, meaning a rake).

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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

. Hookigami, Hōkigami 箒神 (ほうきがみ) Hokigami, Hahakigami
Legends about the Broom Deity .

Many legends and tales about the broom are related to giving birth.

.......................................................................... Miyagi 宮城県 ......................................

安産のために、出産のとき産婦の枕元に箒を立てたり、あるいは箒を産の神として産婦に拝ませて、産気づいた時にその箒で腹を撫でるという。

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- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -
115 hooki 箒 (01)

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. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]- - - - - #hookibooki #hookibroom #broom - - - -
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5/04/2016

kenyaku frugality

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
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kenyaku 倹約 frugality, thrift - Sparsamkeit

. Buke shohatto 武家諸法度 Laws for the Samurai .

- - - - - Articles promulgated in 1615
12 Samurai throughout the realm are to practice frugality.

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A Model of Ecological Sustainability
Craft guilds and craftspeople that specialized in repairing broken goods were not rare in the pre-industrial world, but Japan during the Edo Period was a uniquely closed-off island location where frugality was an important virtue and self-sufficiency was crucial to survival.
- Eisuke Ishikawa

. Recycling and Reuse in Edo - リサイクル と 再生 / 再使用 .


bakusei kaikaku 幕政改革 Shogunate government reform
seitaku 贅沢 luxury
shashi kinshihoo 奢侈禁止法
- - - - - shashi kinshi rei 奢侈禁止令 law against luxury
shisso kenyaku 質素倹約 frugal life, modest life



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kenyakurei, kenyaku rei 倹約令
laws regulating expenditures; sumptuary edicts; thrift ordinance



source : blogs.yahoo.co.jp/kitasandou2
「寛政の倹約令」Kansei no Kenyaku Rei

During the long Edo period, quite a few laws to promote frugality were made.
One of the most famous it the
shashi kinshi rei 奢侈禁止令 law against luxury 1787
after the great famine of Tenmei 天明の大飢饉, ordered by
松平定信 Matsudaira Sadanobu.
Food, robes and the general lifestyle were greatly influenced by this law.

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The common people were forbidden to wear silk robes 絹布着用禁.
To pass aroung this law, the clever Edokko stopped using silk on the outside of their Kimono, but used them inside for linings.

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Special materials like yuuki tsumugi 結城紬 Yuki tsumugi used a cotton warp thread for weaving and were thus permitted.

- quote -
Yūki-tsumugi 結城紬 is the Japanese craft of silk cloth practised chiefly in the vicinity of Yūki in Ibaraki Prefecture.
Developing from earlier silk techniques, the name Yūki-tsumugi was adopted in 1602. Weavers were invited from Ueda and the cloth, at first plain, was used as gifts for the shogun. Currently approximately one hundred and thirty craftsmen transmit the technique in Yūki and Oyama.
Silk floss is extracted from silkworm cocoons and spun by hand into yarn. Patterns are added by tie-dyeing, before weaving with a loom known as a jibata (地機). The strap around the weaver's waist enables the tension of the vertical thread to be adjusted. It can take up to fifteen days to weave enough plain fabric for an adult garment, and up to forty-five days for patterned fabric.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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This is a modern Daruma from Celuloid, looking like bekko.

Accesories and hair decorations from tortoiseshell were forbidden. So the crafstmen pretended their pieces were made from cheap suppon スッポン Suppon turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis

. bekkoo 鼈甲 / べっこう / べっ甲 tortoiseshell .

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Some luxury was appearing within the regulations 規制内で贅沢.

Since large 雛人形 Hina dolls for the Doll festival were forbidden, craftsmen made small but very luxurious ones.

Yukuta robes from cotton were allowed, so the craftsmem made them with ever more elaborate patterns.
Bright red and yellow colors were not allowed any more. so the craftsmen prepares
. hyaku nezumi 百鼠 a hundred shades of gray .
so show their individual tastes.


CLICK for more nezu colors !

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Viewing Japanese Prints
- quote -
FAQ: What were sumptuary edicts?
Numerous sumptuary regulations were issued throughout the Edo period (1615-1868) to control the expression of ideas that were deemed a threat to public decorum, safety, or morality, or that were subversive to the ruling Tokugawa shogunate. Ostentatious and inappropriate behavior and display for all the classes was proscribed.
The earliest sumptuary laws were based on similar practices from China, where consumption was correlated positively with status. In Japan these regulations were called ken'yakurei ("laws regulating expenditures": 儉約令) for all classes of society. They did not constitute a distinct body of laws, but rather were part of the occasional regulatory proclamations (ofuregaki: 御觸書) issued by the rôjû ("council of elders": 牢中) and disseminated through various intermediaries to the intended group or class.

Although the chônin ("persons of the town": 町人) often complained about the repressive measures, the government generally relied more on threats and exhortations than on imposing punishments. There were only a limited number of recorded cases of arrest for violating sumptuary edicts cited in Tokugawa-period legal documents or the popular literature. Throughout the Edo period the sumptuary regulations frequently referred to previous edicts, suggesting that many were not considered permanent or practically enforceable, and that compliance among the targeted groups was often a problem. An expression of the time, mikka hatto ("three-day laws": 三日法度), suggested that violations of sumptuary laws often followed after only brief periods of compliance.

Content and the Expression of Ideas
There were during the Edo period various periodic restrictions on "content," such as edicts that prohibited publishing about current events, unorthodox theories, rumors, scandals, erotica, government officials, or anything directly related to the Tokugawa rulers or the Imperial Family. One of the most repressive set of edicts was known as the Kansei Reforms, named after the era name Kansei (I/1789 - II/1801) in which they were enacted. With the death of the shogun Ieharu in 1786, his successor Ienari (1773-1841; ruled 1787-1837) remained a minor until 1793, and the real governing power was in the hands of Matsudaira Sadanobu (1758-1829), a grandson of the shogun Yoshimune and the daimyô (military lord, literally "great name") of the Shirakawa domain.
Sadanobu held the post of chief councilor (rojû shuseki) from 1787 to 1793. He initiated reforms that he believed were needed after a series of riots in various cities in the summer of 1787 were precipitated by high rice prices following several years of poor harvests and famines. The early stages of the Kansei Reforms focused on the removal from power of corrupt officials and the institution of various specific measures to check inflation and stabilize prices. The reforms were later extended to the field of publishing in 1790. In the fifth month of that year, no new books were to be published except by special permission. Current events were not to be depicted in prints, and gorgeous and extravagant works were to be avoided. No unorthodox theories were to be published, while the publication of erotica was to be gradually halted.
.....
Appearance and Expenditures
Other sumptuary edicts attempted to proscribe "appearance" and the expenditure of wealth as appropriate to each class. As some of the merchants began to amass large fortunes and live in a manner previously reserved only for the samurai class, the bakafu ("tent government," the shôgun's ruling officials) issued sumptuary laws to reinforce the distinctions between the classes, to encourage frugality, and to maintain a Neo-Confucian system of moral conduct. The government was particularly concerned that the morale and discipline of the samurai class should not be undermined by ostentatious displays of wealth among the 'chônin'. Many regulations proscribed the consumption of goods and services and placed limits on luxurious entertainment, identifying what was appropriate for members of each social level and closely correlating consumption with social status.
- snip -

Ukiyo-e researchers have long cited examples of edicts that affected printmaking, such as the banning of prints with bust portraits of women in the first month of Kansei 12 (1800). The edict was a curious one, as it admitted that there was nothing really wrong with such prints, but that they were to be proscribed as medatsu ("conspicuous"). Another example was the ban in 1793 on prints with the names of women other than courtesans.
- snip -
Among the worst of the later set of edicts were the repressive Tenpô kaikaku ("Tenpô Reforms") of 1842-1847.

- Read the full text here:
- reference source : viewingjapaneseprints.net/texts - John Fiorillo


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- reference -

- reference : norenkai.net -


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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]- - - - - #kenyaku #frugalityedo - - - -
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4/30/2016

teppo guns

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
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teppoo, teppô 鉄砲 Teppo, gun, musket, matchlock, Gewehr
hinawajuu, hinawajū 火縄銃 Hinawaju

teppo ashigaru  鉄砲足軽 matchlockmen
tanegashima 種子島, also hinawajū 火縄銃 Tanegashima matchlock


source : kotobank

- quote -
Tanegashima (種子島), also hinawajū (火縄銃), was a type of matchlock configured arquebusfirearm introduced to Japan through the Portuguese in 1543.Tanegashima were used by the samurai class and their foot soldiers (ashigaru) and within a few years the introduction of the tanegashima in battle changed the way war was fought in Japan forever.



1 History
1.1 Origins

The tanegashima seems to have been based on snap matchlocks that were produced in Portuguese India, at the armory of Goa (a colony of Portugal since 1510). The name tanegashima came from the Japanese island (Tanegashima) where a Chinese junk with Portuguese adventurers on board was driven to anchor by a storm in 1543.
The lord of the Japanese island, Tanegashima Tokitaka (1528–1579), purchased two matchlock muskets from the Portuguese and put a swordsmith to work copying the matchlock barrel and firing mechanism. The smith (Yaita) did not have much of a problem with most of the gun but "drilling the barrel helically so that the screw (bisen bolt) could be tightly inserted" was a major problem as this "technique did apparently not exist in Japan until this time." The Portuguese fixed their ship and left the island and only in the next year when a Portuguese blacksmith was brought back to Japan was the problem solved.
Within ten years of its introduction, over 300,000 tanegashima firearms were reported to have been manufactured.
1.2 Sengoku period
1.3 Edo period
1.4 Modern use
2 Parts of the tanegashima
3 Gallery
- source : wikipedia -

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- quote
Teppô is the Japanese term for arquebuses, or matchlocks, the first European firearm to be introduced to Japan. Though some forms of gunpowder weapons existed in Japan earlier, having been introduced from China via Korea or the Ryukyus, European firearms made a major impact upon Sengoku period samurai warfare.
While the term teppô might literally be translated as "iron cannon," or "metal gun," the term hinawajû is sometimes also used, meaning literally "fire rope gun," and referring to the matchlock mechanism.

Introduction to Japan

The introduction of the European matchlock began in 1543, during the Sengoku period. In that year, two or three Portuguese arrived aboard a Chinese junk off the coast of Tanegashima, south of Kyushu. Though the account by Fernao Mendes Pinto is oft-cited, that by Antonio Galvano, governor of Malacca from 1536-1540, is considered by some scholars more reliable. According to his account, published posthumously in 1557, the three Portuguese were Christopher Antonio da Mota, Francis Zimoro, and Antonio Perota, who had abandoned their Portuguese compatriots in Siam and found passage aboard this Chinese junk.

After trying out the arquebuses the Portuguese had with them, the lord of the island, Tanegashima Tokitaka, purchased from the strangers two examples of the firearms for his family treasury and is said to have occupied himself ceaselessly with learning to use them. He instructed a retainer to learn to make the gunpowder, and another, the swordsmith Yasuita Kinbei Kiyosada, to reproduce the weapon itself. According to some accounts, Tokitaka gave his daughter to the Portuguese in exchange for the weapons, and/or for instruction in their production. Kiyosada encountered difficulties, however, in reproducing the spring mechanism, and also in properly sealing the end of the barrel. Fortunately the next year a Portuguese ship arrived (by some accounts bearing the same Portuguese men), and a smith on board was able to teach Kiyosada about the spring mechanism, and how to close the barrel. This discovery led to the production of several tens of firearms in a period of a little over a year. Tokitaka instructed his retainers to practice on the new weapon, and many beccame proficient. Later, the Sakai merchant Tachibana Iemonzaburô, later known as Teppô-mata, came and stayed on the island for one or two years and learned the craft. From him, the knowledge spread throughout the country.

After that the Portuguese had begun to openly trade with other cities in Japan. Nagasaki had become a major trade port for trade between the Japanese and Portuguese, and the traders brought a variety of novelties including wool, velvet, tobacco, clocks and eyeglasses. But the most popular and less novel item brought to Japan by Europe, was the matchlock arquebus.

Many of the daimyô were impressed after seeing the European matchlock; by 1549 many daimyô ordered their weaponsmiths to copy and mass-produce this advanced weapon. One daimyô in particular who saw potential in this weapon was Oda Nobunaga; he placed an order for 500 arquebuses, the largest order to date...

Soon the Japanese demonstrated not only their ability to quickly assimilate objects from other cultures, but also their ability to improve upon it. Many metalsmiths went to work and even improved the teppô. This weapon was found to be more powerful then the bow, and easier to use. Eventually the teppô replaced many archer units in battle.

A look at the Teppô
The First 30 Years

1549 - Oda Nobunaga's father placed an order for 500 arquebuses.
1570 - Oda Nobunaga's army of 30,000 were forced to withdraw by a fierce counter attack of the Ikko-ikki of Ishiyama Honganji. 3,000 Ikko-ikki matchlockmen used controlled volley firing against Nobunaga's men. .....



- - - - - Edo Period
Firearms continued to be used by both samurai authorities and by peasants & commoners in the Edo period. Sakai and Kunitomo continued to be the chief sites of production, and matchlocks continued to be the dominant form of firearms used; firearms technology did not advance much within Japan over the course of the 17th to mid-19th centuries. Flintlocks, which had replaced the matchlock in Europe, were known and occasionally produced, but the matchlock remained dominant in Japan, possibly in part because they produced less recoil. These sorts of muskets were by far the most common form of firearm in the country, with some estimates claiming that roughly 150,000 to 200,000 firearms were in circulation at any given time in Tokugawa Japan. Peasants' weapons generally fired shot two to three monme in weight, equivalent to .440 to .495 caliber, in today's terminology. At the request of the shogunate, gunsmiths also on occasion produced handguns and small cannon.
David Howell argues that over the course of the period, within the countryside at least, firearms came to be seen less as weapons (i.e. for military purposes) and more as essential agricultural equipment. Peasants maintained possession of their guns after Toyotomi Hideyoshi's Sword Hunts in the 1580s-90s, which specifically targeted swords, and not firearms. It was only in 1657 that regulations on peasant ownership of weapons began to be put into place; even then, hunters, and farmers who claimed they needed guns to help defend themselves and their crops against wild boar and other such threats, were permitted to continue to own firearms. .....
..... A series of edicts issued in the 1720s not only permitted the use of weapons by peasants year-round, but actually encouraged their use, and the borrowing of weapons, for the purposes of scaring away animals.
..... In the early 19th century, the shogunate began to worry about the amorphous imagined threat of "bad guys" - including rônin, jobless commoners, and the like - hoarding weapons and planning violence or other criminal activities. Numerous edicts banned peasants from engaging in martial activities, including firing practice.
- - - - - Bakumatsu
Meiji Period

- source : wiki.samurai-archives.com



Tanegashima / Teppo / Hinawaju ... Japanese Matchlock Guns
source : militaria.co.za/nmb/topic


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Teppo-machi, teppoochoo 鉄砲町 Teppocho, Gunsmith's village
now 日本橋本町3・4 - - - Nihonbashi

Teppokaji 鉄砲鍛冶 Craftsmen producing guns were only allowed to work in this district.

. teppoo kaji 鉄砲鍛冶 gunsmith producing Teppo matchlocks .
- Introduction -


There is also a Teppo-machi in other cities of Japan.
Nagasaki.

Not far from Shimabara Castle in Nagasaki's Shimabara City sits the town's well-preserved samurai district. Known as "teppo-machi" or "gun town", this district once housed foot soldiers of the local clan who were skilled in firearms use.
Today, the neighborhood is a quiet place. The single main street boasts a small canal running through its center; on either side, many of the imposing gates of old samurai mansions still stand. Three of the old samurai houses are open to the public and admission to all of the properties is free.
Low-class samurais lived in Teppo-machi (what is called 'Samurai-house zone')
- source : en.japantravel.com/nagasaki -


- - - - - List of Teppo-Cho in Japan
鉄砲町(てっぽうちょう、てっぽうまち)
- reference : wikipedia -

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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

O-Teppo Matsuri お鉄砲まつり Teppo Festival

In 宮城県 Miyagi, Kurihara District at 花山村 Hanayama village after the festival when all guns are shot, if there was one that did not fire properly, the family of this man will have bad luck. Therefore they all keep the weapons very clean and free of ritual impurities.

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Gunma 群馬県 勢多郡 横野村

daija 大蛇 huge serpent
「樽」の酒屋は大身代で、守護の大蛇が棲んでいた。大蛇のために、毎年36石入り、6尺の大樽の酒を用意していたが、ある時主人が、蛇さえいなければ身代ももっと上がると考え、火縄銃で撃ち殺してしまった。遺骸を埋めたのが蛇塚で、その後、酒屋は没落してしまった。


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Ibaraki 茨城県 水戸市 Mito

mujina ムジナ Badger
ある人が雨の日の夜に月を見て、それが狢の化けているものだと知り、油断をさせて火縄銃でその月を打ち落とした。狢は月に化けることがある。


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Kochi 高知県 幡多郡 黒潮町

tanuki 狸
炭焼をしていた話者が夜竃をしていた所、自分の娘が呼びに来た。怪しんで火縄銃を差し付けたら、逃げて行った。また別の日、隣の男が来て「お前の女房が病気だから帰ってくれ」という。怪しんだ紺蔵が男を竃の前で待たせて観察していると、男は居眠りを始め、耳も口もすっかり狸の相を現してしまった。そこで燃える炭を叩き付けると狸は逃げ、翌朝、焼け爛れた大狸が谷川に浮いていた。

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土佐山村 Tosayama
山で妖怪に行き会ったときは、火縄銃にある照尺の小穴からのぞくと正体が分かる。

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Nara 奈良県 添上郡 月ヶ瀬村 石打 Tsukigase Ishiuchi

Toosuke Jizoo 藤助地蔵 Tosuke Jizo


source : geografi.nu/region
The mountain path toward Tosuke Jizo at Tukigaseishiuchi

Once upon a time,
a hunter named Tosuke took his beloved dog and went hunting in the mountains. He waited in his mountain hut for a prey. Suddenly he heard a loud noise and run outside, but he did not see anything. His dog seemed to see or sense something, but he trembled in fear.
Tosuke became afraid, took the last bullet and shot his gun into the dark. But out of his gun came a ball of fire toward himself and he died almost on the spot. His dog pulled him inside the hut and watched over him.
But then the hut burned down in the fire in no time and the body of Tosuke became a 黒仏 "Black Buddha".
The villagers built a small sanctuary for him, Tosuke Jizo, and came here to pray every year on the 6th day of the 8th month.
Many years later when his descendants tried to re-built the hut, they found a hinawaju 縄銃 gun in the straw roof of the building.
This is near 小字 堂山 Shoji Doyama. There are actually two stone statues, one of 不動明王Fudo Myo-O and one of 藤助地蔵 Tosuke Jizo.


source : panoramio.com/photo


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- - - - - 上北山村 - - - - - ippon datara イッポンダタラ
「ハテノハツカに伯母ヶ峯越すな」と言う。伯母ヶ峯にはイッポンダタラが出て通る人を食らった。西原の射場兵庫という鉄砲名人が退治したのが12月20日で、この日にはイッポンダタラの供養がある。ハテノハツカにはその時の火縄銃が汗をかくという。

. Ippondatara, Ippon-datara 一本ダタラ - Ippon tatara .
Yoshitsune and his horses 義経の馬 .

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Saitama 埼玉県 秩父郡 Chichibu district

daija 大蛇 huge serpent
沼の主の大蛇を火縄銃で撃ち殺すと、その人の子孫は背中や脇の下にうろこのようなあざがあり、毛の生えている子供が生まれる。大蛇が殺された時、沼が決壊して大水になった。死んでいる大蛇を見た人は病気になった。


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- reference : nichibun yokai database -
222 to explore
火縄銃 OK

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source : militaria.co.za/nmb/topic/14557
Woodblock prints with matchlocks!



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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

- source : Kobayashi Issa - David Lanoue -

鉄砲の三尺先の小てふかな
teppô no san jaku saki no ko chô kana

three feet
from the musket's barrel...
little butterfly


Susumu Takiguchi points out that guns were "brought to Japan for the first time by the shipwrecked Portuguese in 1543 (some say 1542), and revolutionised the way battles were fought and castles were designed. They were initially 'hinawa-ju' (matchlock or firelock) and this must be the type of 'teppo' which Issa was talking about."


鉄砲の先に立たり女郎花
eppô no saki ni tachitari ominaeshi

in the musket's
line of fire...
a maiden flower



木がらしや鉄砲かつぎて小脇差
kogarashi ya teppô katsugite ko wakizashi

winter wind--
he shoulders a musket
and a short sword



雨乞にから鉄砲のきげん哉
amagoi ni kara teppô no kigen kana

after praying for rain
in a mood
to shoot the musket




. Kobayashi Issa 小林一茶 in Edo .

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sugideppo 杉鉄砲 blowing toy for children made from Sugi wood

春や昔杉鉄砲の痛きこと
川名大

杉鉄砲借りしが縁児と笑ふ
浜田みずき

良寛堂ひとりやだれの杉鉄砲
松田ひろむ

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神杉を突いて鉄砲宮相撲
茨木和生

鉄砲射堋(あづち)霧間の樹神(こだま)かよひけり
調古

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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11/01/2015

shitateya tailor

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. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .
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shitateya 仕立屋 / 仕立て屋 tailor, seamstress

Since many men where living alone in Edo, they had their robes made by tailors, who were also mostly men. Tailors started working after receiving an order from a client. First they had to get the cloth.

The womenfolk had to make the robes for the whole family themselves, working at home in the evening.
Some women worked as seamstress for the rich ladies.

Samurai families employed omonoshi 御物師 for their special robes.
Temples often called the tailor shinmyoo 針妙 Shinmyo.
The character 妙 is a combination of 少女 young woman in the secret language of priests, who were not allowed to have women in the monasteries.

gofukuya 呉服屋 draper's stores (Kimono shops) which sold the material to make new robes also offered a service to sew them.


source : cleanup.jp/life/edo

futomonodana 太物(ふともの)店 sold "thick robes" made from cotton 木綿, in contrast to the Gofukuya, who often sold silk material 絹.
kiwataya 木綿店 cotton cloth dealers

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gofukuchoo 呉服町 Gofukucho, district of the Kimono shops
It was the estate of the dealer Gotoo Nuinosuke 後藤縫之助 / 後藤縫殿助 Goto Nuinosuke, who was allowed to supply the Edo castle, especially all the ladies living there, with new robes.
His nickname was 呉服後藤 Gofuku Goto, because there was another person doing tatoos, 彫物後藤 Horimono Goto, living in the Ginza, 金座後藤庄三郎.
There were also stores of Sake wholesalers in the district.


The bridge over the Sotobori canal, Gofukubashi 呉服橋.
Another bridge nearby was 一石橋 Ichigokubashi.


歌川芳藤 Utagawa Yoshifuji (1828 - 1887)

- - - - - Then and now in 1916 - - - - -



吉良上野介 Kira Kozukenosuke originally lived near Gofukubashi near Edo castle.

- quote -
Site of the North Magistrate's Office
The office of the North Magistrate was located inside the Gofukubashi Gate from 1806 to the end of the Edo period (1867).
This is near what is now the Nihonbashi Exit of Tokyo Station, southwest of the Gofukubashi crossing.
- source : syougai.metro.tokyo.jp/bunkazai -



Gofukubashi Mitsuke Mon 呉服橋見附門 Gofukubashi Mitsuke Gate

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furugiya 古着屋 dealers in old robes would wash and clean them and sew them together for new merchandise. This was a full-blown recycle business in Edo. Nothing was wasted.
shitate-naoshi 仕立て直し re-making robes was very important.

. furugi 古着 old robes - Introduction .



kogire-kake 古裂れ掛け contraption to hang pieces of washed old cloth.

kogire 古裂れ old pieces of cloth, size did not matter, small pieces were also available.
kamawanu -構わぬ never mind (the size), became kamawanu 鎌わぬ.
kogireya 古裂れ屋 / 端切れ屋 dealer in old pieces of cloth, ready to be re-sewn.

tsugihagi, tsugi-hagi 継ぎ接ぎ patching and darning was also popular.

Old robes of grown-ups were also re-sewn for children. When they became worn, they could be made into diapers for the next baby. (Old diapers became cleaning cloths in the kitchen and after that could be used to start a fire - the final end of a piece of cloth. The ashes from the kitchen fire were then used as fertilizer in the fields.
Recycle and re-use were the norm in Edo.


Some robes were made entirely new, others were only repaired or re-done.
Special robes and Happi coats had to be made for festivals.

In the pleasure quarters, mitsubuton 三つ布団 special three-layered Futon sitting cushions for the honorable visitors were also made by the Shitateya. Since these cushions were rather large and his working room usually quite small, he had to be skilfull to do the job properly. But it payed well of course.

Townspeople who could not afford to make new robes for the New Year would at least make some new ones for the Hanami Cherry blossom viewing party.
The bi-annual "changing of the robes" from summer to winter wear was also a chance to make some new ones. Others would just sew another layer to the summer robes and take it off in spring.

. Kimono 着物  traditional Japanese robes .

. hari 針 sewing needles and rituals .

Needlework was done in the seiza 正座 kneeling position, with a pin and needle cushion, hariyama 針山 "needle mountain" (harisashi 針刺し) nearby.



While the hands were busy working, the knees (and feet and toes, if the tailor sat cross-legged) could be used to hold the cloth. Most parts were simply sewed together in straight lines for a Japanese robe.




Yukawa Shoodoo 湯川松堂 Yukawa Shodo (1868 - 1955)

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Traditional Japanese Room, Tailor Workshop

This is a tailor’s workshop from the beginning of the Taisho Period (1912–1926).



On the left we can see the shelves with materials and a very old sewing machine. To the right, there is a living room with a still unfinished kimono.
At the time, the workshop was also the master's house, where he lived together with his apprentices, working and teaching them the craftsmanship.
- source : muza-chan.net -


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My job is sewing kimono.

Tailoring the kimono is called 'wasai'  和裁 Japanese dressmaking.



An excellent kimono can't be sewn by sewing machine , it must all be hand-sewn . If one wants to put on a kimono for a long time , it is better for the kimono not to be made on a sewing machine . Kimono is made of a flat pattern clothing-construction . If the thresd is pulled on the kimono , it returns to it's former square cloth shape . 'Wasai' sews straight except for the neck line of kimono and the collar of the coat for kimono. Paper patterns are not used for sewing kimono except for the collar of the coat for kimono. Kimono can be tailored more freely than dresses . If the kimono is of good quality and is treated with care, it may be able to be worn over three generations .
- source : kimono-akinai.com -


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Japanese Bookbinding - Dana Gee
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The word shitateya was generally used for a person who finished off sewing jobs and the word shitate was sometimes used for the final stages of production of books including covers and sewing.
. seihonshi 製本師 bookbinder - Buchbinder .




Edo Craftsmen: Master Artisans of Old Tokyo
Thomas F. Judge (Author), Tomita Hiroyuki (Photographer)
- at amazon and google books


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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

仕立屋と宮師の裏の小夜時雨
shitateya to miyashi no ura no sayo shigure

night drizzle
at the back of the shrine carpenter (home)
and the tailor (home)


攝津幸彦 Settsu Yukihiko (1947 - 1996)

. WKD : sayo shigure 小夜時雨 night drizzle .
- - kigo for early Winter - -

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針妙をお針と云いて叱られる
shinmyoo o o-hari to itte shikarareru

to scold a tailor
at the temple he is called
"Mister Needle"


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クロッカス老仕立屋の鼻めがね
高砂子三知代

仕立屋と針千本の呑みくらべ
仁平勝

仕立屋の針子に届く千歳飴
西村三穂子

心ひかるる仕立屋の冬灯
西村和子

梅雨に入る仕立屋の灯は低きまま
香西照雄

立版古仕立屋銀次孤独なり
久米三汀

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. shokunin 職人 craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. - Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. densetsu 伝説 Japanese Legends - Introduction .


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