shukuba post station

shukuba 宿場 post station, postal station

The most important part of a shukuba postal station along one of the official trade routes of the Edo period were the

. hatago (旅籠, 旅篭) lodgings .

Shukuba (宿場) were post stations during the Edo period in Japan,
generally located on one of the Edo Five Routes or one of its sub-routes. They were also called shukueki (宿駅). These post stations (or "post towns") were places where travelers could rest on their journey around the nation. They were created based on policies for the transportation of goods by horseback that were developed during the Nara and Heian periods.

These post stations were first established by Tokugawa Ieyasu shortly after the end of the Battle of Sekigahara. The first post stations were developed along the Tōkaidō (followed by stations on the Nakasendō and other routes). In 1601, the first of the Tōkaidō's fifty-three stations were developed, stretching from Shinagawa-juku in Edo to Ōtsu-juku in Ōmi Province. Not all the post stations were built at the same time, however, as the last one was built in 1624.

The lodgings in the post stations were established for use by public officials and, when there were not enough lodgings, nearby towns were also put into use. The post station's toiyaba, honjin and sub-honjin were all saved for the public officials. It was hard to receive a profit as the proprietor of these places, but the shogun provided help in the form of various permits, rice collection and simple money lending, making it possible for the establishments to stay open. The hatago, retail stores, tea houses, etc., which were designed for general travelers, were able to build a profit. Ai no shuku were intermediate post stations; though they were unofficial resting spots, they had many of the same facilities.

Generally speaking, as the Meiji period arrived and brought along the spread of rail transport, the number of travelers visiting these post stations greatly declined, as did the prosperity of the post stations.

Post station facilities
Toiyaba (問屋場) Tonya: General offices that helped manage the post town.

Honjin (本陣): Rest areas and lodgings built for use by samurai and court nobles. Honjin were not businesses; instead, large residences in the post towns were often designated as lodging for government officials.

Waki-honjin (脇本陣): These facilities were also for use by samurai and court nobles, but general travelers could also stay here if there were vacancies.

Hatago (旅籠): Facilities that offered accommodations to general travelers and also served food.

Kichin-yado (木賃宿): Facilities that offered accommodations to general travelers, but did not serve food.

Chaya (茶屋): Rest areas that sold tea, food and alcohol to travelers.

Shops: General shops built to sell wares to travelers.

Kōsatsu (高札): Signboards on which the shōgun's proclamations were posted.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. sankin kootai 参勤交代 Sankin Kotai Daimyo attendance in Edo
daimyoo gyooretsu, daimyō gyōretsu 大名行列 Daimyo procession .


Edo shishuku 江戸四宿 The four most important SHUKUBA out of Edo

There were five major roads leading out of Edo

. Edo Gokaidoo 江戸五街道 Gokaidō - five highways .
Five Kaido starting at Nihonbashi, Edo

. Koshu Kaido 甲州街道 Kōshū Kaidō .
from Edo via Kofu to Suwa
- - -
. Koshu Ura Kaido 甲州裏街道 Koshu Back Road .
starting from Oome, Ōme 青梅 / おうめ Ome town

. Nakasendoo 中山道 / 中仙道 Nakasendo Highway .
from Edo to Kyoto, via the mountains

. Nikkoo Kaidoo 日光街道 Nikko Kaidō .
日光例幣使街道 Nikko Reiheishi Kaido - To Nikko Toshogu grave of Tokugawa Ieyasu
御成道 Onarimichi Onari Michi for the Shogun only

. Oshu Kaido 奥州街道 Ōshū Kaidō .
connecting Edo with the Mutsu Province in Tohoku.

. Tokaido 53 Stations 東海道五十三次 Tōkaidō  
from Edo to Kyoto

And the first shukuba of them became the most famous one's in Edo.
Not only for travellers, but also for rich people from Edo to go there, stay over night and have some fun. They were only two RI 二里 (about 4 km) away from Nihonbashi.

Each one had a brothel quarter (okabasho 岡場所), where the meshimori onna 飯盛女 "rice-serving ladies" were on duty.
The Edo Bakufu government tried to regulate the number of women, since the brothel owners of Yoshiwara complained about the cheap competition. But to no avail.

Shinagawa was especially famous for its cheap accomodations.
Many priests from the nearby temples frequented the establishments.
Many kyooka 狂歌 "crazy poems" were written about the situation there.
yuukaku 遊廓 Yukaku (a red-light district)
- Zappai senryu Edo okabasho zue -
-江岡場所遊女百姿 / 花咲一男著 -

source : tomochika0430
Kita Senju 北千住

. Senju shuku 千住宿 Senju .
first stop on the Oshu Dochu and Nikko Dochu 奥州道中 - 日光道中

. Itabashi shuku 板橋宿 .
first stop on the Nakasendo 中山道

Naito Shinjuku 内藤新宿
first stop on the Koshu Dochu 甲州道中

Shinagawa shuku, Shinagawa-juku 品川宿
first stop on the Tokaido 東海道

- - - Edo Itsu Kuchi  江戸五口 five entrance gates to/from Edo castle
They would eventually lead towart the five kaido roads.

Tayasu mon 田安門(上州道)、Kandabashi mon 神田橋門(柴崎口)、Hanzoo mon 半蔵門(甲州道)、soto Sakurada mon 外桜田門(小田原口・旧東海道), Tokiwabashi gomon 常磐橋御門


Things that a toiyaba 問屋場 had to provide for the travellers

The prize for porters and horses was generally fixed:

kanme aratame 貫目改 officials to check the weight of the luggage

honma / hon uma 本馬 pack horse, carrying about 40 kan 貫 (150 kg) or 36 kan (135 kg)
(a kind of daba 駄馬 draught horse or pack horse)

norikake 乗掛 to ride a horse and carry some luggage
Two light boxes were hung on each side of the saddle and the traveler could ride the horse

karujiri / karajiri 軽尻/空尻 riding only
for light hand luggage about 5 kan (18.8 kg)
for only light luggage about 20 kan (75 kg) about half of a "honma"

ninsoku 人足 porter
one porter carried about 5 kan (18.8 kg)

source : mkageyama22

source : tokaido.canariya.net

kumosuke 雲助 shifty carrier, a thuggish palanquin bearer

Hakone ji ni kumosuke no hi ya aka no mama

at the Hakone road
the memorial stone of a kumosuke -
all in red

Tr. Gabi Greve

Shinkawa Harumi 新川晴美

. Palanquin, sedan chair (kago 篭. 駕籠 or かご) .


Ton'ya (問屋), called toiya outside of Edo,
were trade brokers in Japan, primarily wholesalers, warehouse managers, and shipment managers; the term applies equally to the traders themselves and to their shops or warehouses. First appearing as early as the 12th century, ton'ya came to serve a crucial role in the economy of the Edo period (1603-1867).

The earliest record of a toi-otoko (問男) may be one from 1175, in which a number of Court officials hire an outside boatsman to transport them down the Yodo River. As he was not a servant or agent of the Court, or any manor, but rather a man hired out privately, this represents the emergence of the sorts of private enterprises which would come to dominate the economy centuries later.

The ton'ya of the Edo period were little different, essentially acting as independent agents for specific elements of the domestic trade; most often they were shippers, but many were local handlers, middlemen, or warehousers. They would be hired by a firm (a merchant, a shop, etc.) which operated out of one of the big cities to manage or handle the firm's goods in some other portion of the country.

Wholesale freight shippers operating out of Osaka, transporting goods to Edo, numbered at least 24 in 1700, and a great many "guilds" existed specializing in the handling of individual types of goods, such as cotton, sugar, or paper. In addition, there were groups such as the Satsuma Tonya and the Matsumae clan Tonya, who specialized in the handling and transportation of goods within two of Japan's four great "gates" to the outside world; Matsumae, in Hokkaidō, governed the trade with the Ainu and Imperial Russia, while Satsuma, in Kyūshū, controlled trade with the Ryūkyū Kingdom and, through them, trade with Qing China.
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jinya jin'ya 陣屋
During the Edo period of Japanese history, a jin'ya (陣屋) was the administrative headquarters of a small domain or parcel of land held by the Tokugawa shogunate, as well as the residence of the head of the administration, and the associated grain storehouse.


- #shukuba #edobakufu -

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