jikan time in Edo

. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

jikan 時間 time in Edo - Edo no jikoku 江戸の時刻

Many words designating the time of the day, the days of a month and the months of a year are kigo for Haiku.

source : blog.livedoor.jp/hontino/archives...

The circle of time has two hours (a double-hour) for each section.

- - - - - Names of the double-hours from four to nine:
akatsuki kokonotsu 暁九つ=24時、akatsuki yatsu 暁八つ= 2時、akatsuki nanatsu 暁七つ=4時、
akemutsu 明け六つ=6時、asa itsutsu 朝五つ=8時、asa yotsu 朝四つ=10時、
hiru kokonotsu 昼九つ=12時、hiru yatsu 昼八つ=14時、
yuu nanatsu 夕七つ=16時、kuremutsu 暮れ六つ=18時、yo itsutsu 夜五つ=20時、yo yotsu 夜四つ=22時

- - - - - Names of the double-hours according to the 12 zodiac animals;
子の刻(23:00~01:00) ne (nezumi)、丑の刻(01:00~03:00) ushi、 寅の刻(03:00~05:00) tora、
卯の刻(05:00~07:00) usagi、辰の刻(07:00~09:00) tatsu、巳の刻(09:00~11:00) mi、
午の刻(11:00~13:00) uma、未の刻(13:00~15:00) hitsuji、申の刻(15:00~17:00) saru、
酉の刻(17:00~19:00) tori, 戌の刻(19:00~21:00) inu、亥の刻(21:00~23:00) inoshishi

The life of Edo was structured around the hours of daylight and work.
With no street lights, nights were dark and spooks, monsters, demons and other folk populated the streets.

At the top right, Number 2, is Ushimitsu.
At Number 4 it was time for a Daimyo Gyoretsu procession to start moving from Nihonbashi.
At Number 6, Akemutsu, the wooden doors separating each district were opened, shops were opened, public bath houses opened and the theaters and entertainment business started.
Between 6 and 8, the craftsmen went to their place of work.
At Number 14 昼八つ it was time for a food break 八つ O-yatsu (Number Eight).
Between 16 and 18, the craftsmen came back home.
At 18, Kuremutsu, the shops were closed. The evening entertainment at the pleasure quarters in Yoshiwara started.
At Number 20 it was time for children to go to sleep.
At Number 22 the wooden doors separating each district were closed.
At Number 24 the wardens at the wooden doors begun their patrols, especially looking out for fires.

One hour was named hantoki 半刻 "half a double-hour"
30 minutes were names kohantoki (こはんとき), shihantoki 四半時 "quarter of a double-hour"

- - - - - Difference between the summer and winter solstice

source : blog.livedoor.jp/hontino/archives...

At the summer solstice, the day time was longest, at the winter solstice, the day time was shortest.

. geshi 夏至 summer / tooji 冬至 winter solstice.


. oomagatoki, Ōmagatoki 逢魔時 / 大禍時 "demon dusk" .

. ushimitsu, ushi mitsu 丑三つ時 .
ushi mitsu, the old double-hour of the ox beginning at one o'clock. mitsu signifies the third part of this time slot.
A time when the spirits of the dead and the gods are alive too.
and wara ningyoo 藁人形 straw dolls for curses


. akemutsu 明け六つ six o'clock in the morning .
- In the Edo Period, the dawn (Akemutsu) and the dusk (Kuremutsu) were set as reference points that divided the day into day and night. Day and night were then each divided into six equal intervals. The length of each interval differed for days and nights and varied with the seasons.
(seiko co jp)

. kuremutsu 暮れ六つ; 暮六つ six o'clock in the evening . .

. The Asian Lunar Calendar - Names of the Months - and
the changing Dates of Japanese Ceremonies

. tokei 時計 history of clocks .
shaku dokei 尺時計 Pillar clock and others

- quote -
Clocks and Time in Edo Japan
A review of Clocks and Time in Edo Japan, by Yulia Frumer.

The logic of mechanical clock faces is seemingly obvious. We look at them several times a day never questioning their rationality despite the mental gymnastics required to discern what the two, sometimes three, apparently uncoordinated hands indicate. So embedded is the clock in our daily life that we use it to describe other movements (e.g. clockwise, anticlockwise) or directions (ever told someone to head in the 3 o’clock direction?) Yet, when in 1551 Oda Nobunaga, arguably Japan’s then most powerful warlord, was presented with a clock by the Jesuit Louis Frois, he returned it saying that “it would be useless in his hands” (p. 53).
In this dissertation Yulia Frumer shows that, despite Nobunaga’s assertions, Western time-pieces could be very useful indeed. However, their utility could only be achieved by integrating them into early modern Japanese time-keeping practices. In this fastidious deconstruction of technological determinism, Frumer shows that the adoption of Western time-keeping mechanisms led not to a transformation in Japanese time-keeping practices, but rather to a transformation of Western clocks to fit Japanese conceptions of time.
- - - - - Chapter 1 provides an explanation of the differences between Western and early modern Japanese conceptions of time. The Western system of a 24-hour day and solar year had the benefit of seasons falling on roughly the same dates in each year, but the disadvantage of months of unequal lengths that started and ended on different days of the week. In contrast, Edo-period Japanese used a system of ‘variable hours’. In this convention inherited from China, the day was divided into 12 ‘hours’ (toki or koku), each designated by one of the twelve animal signs. Six of these ‘hours’ fell during daylight hours and the remaining six at night. Seasonal variations in daylight meant that an ‘hour’ could last anywhere from about 77 to 156 ‘minutes’ with daylight and night time ‘hours’ equal only during the equinoxes. Frumer also shows how time-consciousness was nurtured and regulated centrally through calendar making and locally through the ringing of bells and drums. Far from being at the mercy of climatic divination, Edo-period Japanese were bound by a shared notion of human-regulated time.
. . . . . continue reading :
- source : http://dissertationreviews....Yulia Frumer -


. 12 Zociac animals 干支  eto, kanshi .

There are 12 zodiac animals, also representing one of the heavenly directions.
They come in the following order:

. ne 子 (nezumi 鼠) Rat (mouse)

. ushi 丑 Ox (cow, bull) .

. tora 寅 Tiger .

. u (usagi) 卯 Rabbit .

. tatsu 辰 Dragon .

. mi (hebi) 巳 Snake, Serpent .

. uma 午 Horse .

. mi (hitsuji) 未 Ram (sheep) .

. saru 申 Monkey .

. tori 酉 Rooster (chicken, cock) .

. inu 戌 Dog .

. i (inoshishi) 亥 Boar (wild boar) .


Further topics from this source
- reference source : blog.livedoor.jp/hontino/archives -



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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

- - - - - #timeinedo #edotime #edoclocks #akemutsu #kuremutsu - - - -

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