Showing posts with label - - - Business in Edo. Show all posts
Showing posts with label - - - Business in Edo. Show all posts

11/01/2015

shitateya tailor

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. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .
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shitateya 仕立屋 / 仕立て屋 tailor, seamstress

Since many men where living alone in Edo, they had their robes made by tailors, who were also mostly men. Tailors started working after receiving an order from a client. First they had to get the cloth.

The womenfolk had to make the robes for the whole family themselves, working at home in the evening.
Some women worked as seamstress for the rich ladies.

Samurai families employed omonoshi 御物師 for their special robes.
Temples often called the tailor shinmyoo 針妙 Shinmyo.
The character 妙 is a combination of 少女 young woman in the secret language of priests, who were not allowed to have women in the monasteries.

gofukuya 呉服屋 draper's stores (Kimono shops) which sold the material to make new robes also offered a service to sew them.


source : cleanup.jp/life/edo

futomonodana 太物(ふともの)店 sold "thick robes" made from cotton 木綿, in contrast to the Gofukuya, who often sold silk material 絹.
kiwataya 木綿店 cotton cloth dealers

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gofukuchoo 呉服町 Gofukucho, district of the Kimono shops
It was the estate of the dealer Gotoo Nuinosuke 後藤縫之助 / 後藤縫殿助 Goto Nuinosuke, who was allowed to supply the Edo castle, especially all the ladies living there, with new robes.
His nickname was 呉服後藤 Gofuku Goto, because there was another person doing tatoos, 彫物後藤 Horimono Goto, living in the Ginza, 金座後藤庄三郎.
There were also stores of Sake wholesalers in the district.


The bridge over the Sotobori canal, Gofukubashi 呉服橋.
Another bridge nearby was 一石橋 Ichigokubashi.


歌川芳藤 Utagawa Yoshifuji (1828 - 1887)



Yatsumibashi 八ツ見橋 Yatsumi bridge (another name for Ichigokubashi)
歌川広重 Utagawa Hiroshige


- - - - - Then and now in 1916 - - - - -



吉良上野介 Kira Kozukenosuke originally lived near Gofukubashi near Edo castle.

- quote -
Site of the North Magistrate's Office
The office of the North Magistrate was located inside the Gofukubashi Gate from 1806 to the end of the Edo period (1867).
This is near what is now the Nihonbashi Exit of Tokyo Station, southwest of the Gofukubashi crossing.
- source : syougai.metro.tokyo.jp/bunkazai -



Gofukubashi Mitsuke Mon 呉服橋見附門 Gofukubashi Mitsuke Gate

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furugiya 古着屋 dealers in old robes would wash and clean them and sew them together for new merchandise. This was a full-blown recycle business in Edo. Nothing was wasted.
shitate-naoshi 仕立て直し re-making robes was very important.

. furugi 古着 old robes - Introduction .



kogire-kake 古裂れ掛け contraption to hang pieces of washed old cloth.

kogire 古裂れ old pieces of cloth, size did not matter, small pieces were also available.
kamawanu -構わぬ never mind (the size), became kamawanu 鎌わぬ.
kogireya 古裂れ屋 / 端切れ屋 dealer in old pieces of cloth, ready to be re-sewn.

tsugihagi, tsugi-hagi 継ぎ接ぎ patching and darning was also popular.

Old robes of grown-ups were also re-sewn for children. When they became worn, they could be made into diapers for the next baby. (Old diapers became cleaning cloths in the kitchen and after that could be used to start a fire - the final end of a piece of cloth. The ashes from the kitchen fire were then used as fertilizer in the fields.
Recycle and re-use were the norm in Edo.


Some robes were made entirely new, others were only repaired or re-done.
Special robes and Happi coats had to be made for festivals.

In the pleasure quarters, mitsubuton 三つ布団 special three-layered Futon sitting cushions for the honorable visitors were also made by the Shitateya. Since these cushions were rather large and his working room usually quite small, he had to be skilfull to do the job properly. But it payed well of course.

Townspeople who could not afford to make new robes for the New Year would at least make some new ones for the Hanami Cherry blossom viewing party.
The bi-annual "changing of the robes" from summer to winter wear was also a chance to make some new ones. Others would just sew another layer to the summer robes and take it off in spring.

. Kimono 着物  traditional Japanese robes .

. hari 針 sewing needles and rituals .

Needlework was done in the seiza 正座 kneeling position, with a pin and needle cushion, hariyama 針山 "needle mountain" (harisashi 針刺し) nearby.



While the hands were busy working, the knees (and feet and toes, if the tailor sat cross-legged) could be used to hold the cloth. Most parts were simply sewed together in straight lines for a Japanese robe.




Yukawa Shoodoo 湯川松堂 Yukawa Shodo (1868 - 1955)

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- quote -
Traditional Japanese Room, Tailor Workshop

This is a tailor’s workshop from the beginning of the Taisho Period (1912–1926).



On the left we can see the shelves with materials and a very old sewing machine. To the right, there is a living room with a still unfinished kimono.
At the time, the workshop was also the master's house, where he lived together with his apprentices, working and teaching them the craftsmanship.
- source : muza-chan.net -


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- quote -
My job is sewing kimono.

Tailoring the kimono is called 'wasai'  和裁 Japanese dressmaking.



An excellent kimono can't be sewn by sewing machine , it must all be hand-sewn . If one wants to put on a kimono for a long time , it is better for the kimono not to be made on a sewing machine . Kimono is made of a flat pattern clothing-construction . If the thresd is pulled on the kimono , it returns to it's former square cloth shape . 'Wasai' sews straight except for the neck line of kimono and the collar of the coat for kimono. Paper patterns are not used for sewing kimono except for the collar of the coat for kimono. Kimono can be tailored more freely than dresses . If the kimono is of good quality and is treated with care, it may be able to be worn over three generations .
- source : kimono-akinai.com -


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Japanese Bookbinding - Dana Gee
- snip -
The word shitateya was generally used for a person who finished off sewing jobs and the word shitate was sometimes used for the final stages of production of books including covers and sewing.
. seihonshi 製本師 bookbinder - Buchbinder .




Edo Craftsmen: Master Artisans of Old Tokyo
Thomas F. Judge (Author), Tomita Hiroyuki (Photographer)
- at amazon and google books


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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

仕立屋と宮師の裏の小夜時雨
shitateya to miyashi no ura no sayo shigure

night drizzle
at the back of the shrine carpenter (home)
and the tailor (home)


攝津幸彦 Settsu Yukihiko (1947 - 1996)

. WKD : sayo shigure 小夜時雨 night drizzle .
- - kigo for early Winter - -

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針妙をお針と云いて叱られる
shinmyoo o o-hari to itte shikarareru

to scold a tailor
at the temple he is called
"Mister Needle"


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クロッカス老仕立屋の鼻めがね
高砂子三知代

仕立屋と針千本の呑みくらべ
仁平勝

仕立屋の針子に届く千歳飴
西村三穂子

心ひかるる仕立屋の冬灯
西村和子

梅雨に入る仕立屋の灯は低きまま
香西照雄

立版古仕立屋銀次孤独なり
久米三汀

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. shokunin 職人 craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. - Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. densetsu 伝説 Japanese Legends - Introduction .


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[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]- - - - - #shitateya #taylorinedo - - - -
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10/18/2015

Construction work

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. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .
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Construction work for a Japanese Home

Introducing the most importand craftsmen and artisans involved in constructing buildings.

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There are several types of craftsmen involved in the construction of buildings, and they differ in status and importance, from the most skillful architects and wood-carvers to the lowest day laborers who do the dirty work to support the more skilled craftsmen. The first, and most highly respected group are the carpenters.
Most master carpenters are not only responsible for building the wooden frame of the building, but also for designing the structure and drawing up the blueprint. It takes highly-skilled craftsmen to design and construct some of the larger and more impressive buildings in Edo, and as a result, the carpenter/architects are the "top of the pyramid" in the construction industry.

Next come the stonemasons and the roofers -- who are ranked about equally in terms of prestige, though their work is quite different. To prevent termites from damaging the wooden structures, most buildings in Edo are built on foundations of stone. The shape, stability and placement of the foundations stones is very important, especially in the case of large buildings. A home with an unsteady foundation may eventually collapse, particularly considering how many earthquakes there are in Japan. The roofers are responsible for covering the building with shingles (on working-class homes and most public buildings) or ceramic tiles (in the case of upper-class residences or temples). This job can be very dangerous, since most buildings have fairly steep roofs. One slip and a worker could suffer a serious injury, or even be killed.

The lowest rank of craftsmen in the construction industry -- just a step above the day laborers and apprentices -- are the plasterers. The homes of blue-collar people, farmers and laborers are usually made of rough-finished boards, with no covering or paint. However, the homes of the samurai are usually coated with a layer of plaster,both for insulation and to provide an attractive exterior finish. In addition, the walls that surround their residences are made of a thick layer of mud and plaster covering a wooden or bamboo frame. Plastering is a rather dirty job, but it requires a certain amount of skill. Many day laborers try their best to win a full time job as a plasterer, since it will mean a step up in status and a better salary than just providing the heavy labor needed on the construction site.

There are two other crafts that are also closely related to the construction industry, though they usually have independent businesses and just sell their products to builders. These are the craftsmen who make shoji (sliding paper screens) and tatami (straw mats). Because of Japan's climate, with its hot and muggy summer weather, most buildings are built with designs that aid in ventilation and air circulation. Shoji are sliding paper screens found on almost all doors and windows. You can slide them open to let the breezes blow through the house, and in the summer time they can be removed entirely, leaving the house open to even the gentlest draft of air. In their place, curtains made of finely-split bamboo or straw are hung from the ceiling. These keep out prying eyes, but still allow the breezes to blow through the entire house.
- source : edomatsu -

The leader of a group of craftsmen was generally called
oyakata 親方 boss, foreman, master craftsman leader

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source : 刃物 フルカワ
職人絵図 江戸時代 大工 (釿・ノミ・鋸・下げ振りなどが見える)



. daiku 大工 carpenter . -
tooryoo 棟梁 Toryo, master carpenter
miyadaiku 宮大工 "shrine carpenter"

. Hida no Takumi 飛騨の匠 Master Builders from Hida .

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. idohori shi 井戸堀師 digging a well .


. ishi ku, ishiku, sekkoo 石工 stone mason .

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jigyooshi 地形師 "ground-preparing" worker, ground leveling worker
Hardening the ground before setting up a building.
jigyoo 地形 Jigyo, the part under the foundation of a building


source : www.bousaihaku.com

This work was helped by the tobishokunin construction workers.

A tower scaffold with three platforms was erected, in its middle a huge tree trunk was placed (jigyoobashira 地形柱). The workers pulled it up and down with the help of a rope over a kassha 滑車 pulley



江戸東京地形の謎 / 芳賀 ひらく

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. kamadoshi かまど 竈師 making the earthen hearth .
- - - - - kamabutashi kamabuta-shi 釜蓋師 making a lid for the iron pot
- - - - - Kamafuta Jinja 釜蓋神社 "Kamafuta Shrine", Kagoshima
daidokoro 台所 the Japanese kitchen


. kanbanya 看板屋 making the shop sign .
kanban 看板 Kamban, Shop Signs


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sashimonoya 指物屋 furniture maker


Edo Sashimono 江戸指物 - 町職人の粋と意気 by 関保雄

. Edo Sashimono 江戸指物 Wood Joinery .

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. shakan, sakan 左官 plasterer, stucco master .
kote-e 鏝絵 "painting with plaster", relief painting
often as decorations on the storehouse of rich merchants.
- and
shikkuishi 漆喰師 making lime plaster walls

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. tansuya 箪笥屋 Tansu maker, craftsman making chest of drawers .

. tatamiya 畳屋 making Tatami floor mats .
tatami 畳 Japanese floor mats

. tateguya 建具屋 making doors and sliding doors .
fusuma 襖 and shooji 障子 sliding doors

. tobishoku, tobi-shoku 鳶職 construction workers .
鳶 tobi、鳶口 tobiguchi、鳶の者


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. uekiya 植木屋, niwashi 庭師 gardener .

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. yaneya 屋根屋 roof maker, roofer - kawaraya 瓦屋/ 瓦師 roof tile maker .

. hafu 破風 gables and roofs .

. kokerabukishi, kokerabuki-shi 柿葺師 craftsman roofing with wooden shingles .


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. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. - Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. densetsu 伝説 Japanese Legends - Introduction .


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[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]- - - - - #constructionwork - - - -
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10/12/2015

terakoya private schools

[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
. - Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .
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terakoya 寺子屋  "temple school", private school


source : facebook - meeting


. Teikin Oorai, Teikin ōrai 庭訓往来 textbooks in Edo .

From the 14th to the 19th century, the king of ōraimono was Teikin ōrai 庭訓往来. The title literally meant "Correspondence [samples] for education at home," but it was eventually used in temple schools (terakoya) as well. It contained 25 letters dated from the first month through the twelfth, artfully crafted to cover as much as possible of the topic and vocabulary pool from which your standard social letter might draw.


. gakumonjo 学問所 Academies of Higher Learning - Introduction .
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. CONFUCIANISM IN THE EDO (TOKUGAWA) PERIOD .

The Oyomei (Chinese: Wang Yang-ming) School:
... In sum scholarly Neo-Confucian studies were widespread and varied. A number of Confucian "academies" (like think tanks) were established, such as the Kaitokudo in Osaka. A so-called "merchant academy," it taught, subtly, that the merchants did have value to society as well and their contribution to the welfare of the realm was significant. Generally, only the samurai class would attend these academies, so this gave merchants a place to send their sons and instill pride in what their families did.
On the popular level, though, people learned about their place in society and the importance of loyalty and filial piety through travelling scholars and what was taught in the terakoya or temple schools.

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- quote -
Terakoya (temple schools) were public educational institutions that provided children with an education of reading and writing and in some places taught the use of the abacus. They existed not only in Edo but in also in other towns and villages throughout Japan.

Thousands of terakoya began receiving pupils throughout the country during the Tempō era (1830-1844). The number of terakoya at the end of the Tokugawa Shogunate seems to have reached some thirty or forty thousand and it was these institutions that contributed to the high levels of literacy among ordinary people.

An example from the beginning of the Meiji period, according to a survey conducted by the Tokyo government, the majority of terayako teachers were Edo citizens. Many were men, but in urban areas, especially in Edo, there were also female teachers. The teachers would consider the professions of the parents of the children who came to learn at terakoya and also their desires and would carry out education respectively with individual curriculums tailored to these needs and circumstances.



Osanarikugei No Uchi Shosū / Painted by Utagawa Kunisada

From the Six Neccesary Subjects for Children, Calligraphy and Abaccus
(Osanarikugei No Uchi Shosū) - rikugei


From the term "rikugei", which means the six kinds of knowledge a wise man has, "osanarikugei" denotes the six subjects necessary for children to learn. "Sho" means calligraphy and "sū" means the Japanese abacus. Children learning "sho" and "sū" are depicted.

Rikugei was knowledge required in ancient China for people who held a rank higher than samurai. It means six kinds of knowledge including "Rei" (moral education), "Raku" (music), "Sha" (archery), "Gyo" (technique to operate horse cart), "Sho" (literature) and "Sū" (math).
Take a look the abacus in the picture. You can see two columns in the upper space (heaven) and five in the lower space (earth). The number of columns is one more than the current abacus in both the upper and lower spaces. This is the exact form of the kind of abacus that originated from China and in the Meiji period, abaci with one heaven column removed, leaving five columns of one heaven and five earth columns, became widespread. Then in 1935 (Shōwa 10), the present abacus with one column in the upper and four columns in the lower spaces appeared




(Bungaku Bandai no Takara (Shinomaki, Suenomaki)
These works are a two piece nishiki-e (colored woodblock print) series depicting a class at terakoya (temple school). A male teacher teaches the class at "Shinomaki" (first volume) and a female teacher at "Suenomaki" (end volume). You can see that most of the children behave freely.

At terakoya (temple school) in the Edo period, not all students sat facing the teacher, the textbooks used and the ages of children varied and attending the class or not was optional.
Most children in the picture are not studying quietly. There are indeed many kinds of going on with some children fooling around with ink brushes and others punching each other or playing with dolls. Also from books behind the female teacher in "sue-no-maki" (end volume), we can see that flower arrangement, tea ceremony and incense burning were taught in addition to reading and writing.
This being said, the teachers at terakoya teachers strictly instructed morals, manners, and rules of decorum and there was a fixed set of rules in the class with punishments for excessive misbehavior whereby children were made to stand still or sit erect with legs folded.


- - - - - Textbooks - - - - -
(1) Teikinourai Terakodakara
(2) Jinkoki Kukunomizu
(3) Onotakamura Utajizukushi" / 1819 (Bunsei 2)


At Terakoya, the education method greatly differed from the present and children generally learned how to read and write. Different textbooks were used for children of farmers and for children of merchants so that each could obtain the respective knowledge neccesary for farming or trading. The general name for the textbook used in terakoya was "ōraimono". The objective of these studies was to learn how to write a letter to someone, and the textbook was called "ōraimono", which means to learn texts that go back and forth.

Teikin-ōrai was one of "Ōraibutsu" textbooks often used to learn basic culture and calligraphy at terakoya (temple school). When it was first developed in the Muromachi period, it was used to educate children of aristocrats, samurai, and monks but it was said to have been most popular in the Edo period as a textbook for common people.
In addition, "Onotakamura Utajizukushi", which was developed in early Edo period to learn Kanji, was so popular that multiple editions were published throughout the Edo period. The textbook contained kanji characters with the same "radical" and "tsukuri" such as 椿, 榎, 楸, 柊, 桐, etc. and also contained was a song to learn and remember them by (haru tsubaki, natsu ha enoki ni aki hisagi, fuyu ha hiiragi onajiku hakiri).
Jinkōki" was famous as an introductory book for math. This was written by a mathematician

- source : library.metro.tokyo.jp -

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- quote -
A Day at a Terakoya School
How were children taught?
The terakoya, or "temple schools" that became common in the Edo period, were organized much like the private, after-school cramming classes found today. Rather than follow the same curriculum as others in their grade, however, the students progressed at their own pace.

The subjects they were taught were primarily reading, writing, and calculation using the abacus. They copied what the instructor wrote down, and practiced writing the same phrase over and over until they were able to approximate the teacher's handwriting. Most of the texts they read were Chinese and Japanese classics, which were repeatedly read aloud until they were practically memorized.

High rate of literacy
The terakoya were found throughout Edo (now Tokyo). According to one Edo-period source, some neighborhoods even had two schools, suggesting a high literacy rate of the townspeople. Enrollment in these schools was about 70% to 80%, much higher than the enrollment ratios found in Europe at the time.

Curriculum
There was no fixed curriculum for each grade and subject, as is the case today. Each school operator adapted the subject matter to the aptitude and progress of each child. Instruction followed a general course order, however, with children first learning the syllabary and then common kanji (Sino-Japanese characters) before studying more complex kanji and phrases. Many different textbooks were used, depending on the children's family background.

A typical day
In addition to academic subjects, children were also given lessons in some art, such as traditional dance and music. In the Ukiyo-buro (The Communal Bath), a late Edo-period novel by Shikitei Sanba depicting the life of townspeople and their children, a girl who is about to enter the bath describes a typical day to a friend: "After I get up, I go to the terakoya to prepare for the calligraphy lesson. Then I have a shamisen (a banjo-like three-stringed instrument) lesson before I come home for breakfast. I go to the terakoya again after my dance lesson, and it's already 3 o'clock by this time. I go to the bath and then go to my koto (zither) lesson. I come home to practice the shamisen and dance parts I learned that day. I play for a while, and after the sun sets I practice the koto."

While not all children may have been this busy, many foreign visitors to Japan toward the end of the Edo period expressed surprised in their diaries and journals at the high number of children who were able to read and write.
- source : web-japan.org/tokyo/know - Hidekazu Ishiyama -

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- reference -

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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

鶯や寺子屋に行く道の藪
uguisu ya terakoya ni iku michi no yabu

this bush warbler -
the thicket along the road
to the temple school


Masaoka Shiki 正岡子規


. Nightingale, bush warbler (uguisu 鴬) .

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寺子屋に傘多し春の泥 妻木
松瀬青々

寺子屋のてら子去にけり秋の暮
黒柳召波 春泥句集

寺子屋の七夕風景随筆に
高澤良一 寒暑

寺子屋の段も佳境に春夕焼
木村てる代

寺子屋の門うつ子あり朝寒み
太祇

糸瓜忌や寺子屋風に集まりて
深見けん二 日月

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Edo no Manabi 「江戸の学び」Schooling in Edo
「江戸東京博物館」 Edo Tokyo Museum



Hiroshige - 歌川広重の「諸芸稽古図会」Hiroshige’s Caricature:

- source : www.1101.com/edo/2006-


Mischievous Boys at a Terakoya
Hiroshige


. . . CLICK here for more ukiyo-e of Edo Terakoya !

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- - - - - quoting Hayato:
A short composition by one of Lafcadio Hearn's students in Kumamoto (From Out of the East):
"Before Meiji, there were no such public schools in Japan as there are now. But, in every province there was a sort of student society, composed of the sons of samurai. Unless a man was a samurai, his son could not enter such a society. It was under the control of the lord of the province, who appointed a director to rule the students. The principal study of the samurai was that of the Chinese language and literature.
Most of the statesmen of the present government were once students in such samurai schools. Common citizens and country people had to send their sons and daughters to primary schools called terakoya, where all the teaching was usually done by one teacher. It consisted of little more than reading, writing, calculating, and some moral instruction.
We could learn to write an ordinary letter, or a very easy essay. At eight years old, I was sent to a terakoya, as I was not the son of a samurai. At first, I did not want to go; and every morning my grandfather had to strike me with his stick to make me go. The discipline at the school was very severe. If a boy did not obey, he was beaten with a bamboo stick, while being held down to receive his punishment. After a year, many public schools were opened and I entered a public school.
- source : Hayato Tokugawa -





化々学校 - おばけの学校 School for Monsters and Demons
河鍋暁斎 Kawanabe Kyosai (1831 - 89)

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- quote -
Temple Schools
The late 18th century Ehon sakaegusa (Fig.3), an illustrated book by the artist Katsukawa Shunko, shows us what contemporary temple schools (known as terakoya) looked like.
(illustration)
On left-hand side of the picture, we see two children sitting at the desk holding a brush and practicing writing. In Edo times, “learning to write” (tenarai) consisted of repeatedly copying words and sentences from a copybook. To save paper, every inch of the sheet has been used so that the sheet is completely covered in black ink. On the right-hand side, there is a female teacher holding a baby on her back and two little girls sitting in front of her with an open book in front of them. They point at the characters on the page with a stick. The girls are actually learning to recite Chinese texts in Chinese by mimicking the teacher’s pronunciation. The stick they are holding was called a jisashi (character pointer), and was used to trace the lines of the characters as one read them. In learning to both read and write, “repetition” was the key pedagogic device, and texts were an indispensable tool in both cases.

Temple schools were the simplest way for commoners to acquire the basic skills needed in everyday life (literacy, arithmetic, etc.). Over the course of the Edo period, thousands of books for use as textbooks in temple schools were published.

One example is the Ehon teikin ōrai (Fig.4). Because the illustrations are by the famous painter and printmaker Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849), they are larger than usual. One of them shows students at work at a temple school.

Onna daigaku (Fig.5), a popular behavior manual for women, contains an image of young girls learning to read Chinese texts from a female instructor.Images of commoners learning from books are indeed common in Edo-period educational books.

Despite some obvious changes, attitudes to education remained rather consistent after the end of the Tokugawa shogunate and the beginning of the Meiji period.
With the influx of ideas and institutions from the West following the Restoration, Japan rapidly reorganized itself as a modern nation state. As the title shows, Doi Kōka (1847-1918)’s Kinsei onna daigaku (Fig.6) was conceived as a “Great Learning for Women” for the modern age. ...
- source : future learn - Keio University -


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. gakumonjo 学問所 Academies of Higher Learning - Introduction .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. - Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. densetsu 伝説 Japanese Legends - Introduction .


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10/05/2015

daiku carpenter

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. shokunin  職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .
. Places and Powerspots of Edo .
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daiku 大工 carpenter and legends

. daiku - Introducing Japanese Carpenters .


CLICK for more photos !
江戸時代大工上棟之図 Edo Carpenters building a roof

tooryoo 棟梁 Toryo, master carpenter
He is a most important person when building a new wooden home, temple or shrine.
They also had the job of an architect in planning and organizing the whole construction.

miyadaiku 宮大工 "shrine carpenter"
specializing in building shrines and palaces

. Hida no takumi 飛騨の匠 master builders from Hida, Gifu .
an expert carpenter or craftsman from Hida
Hida no daiku 飛騨の大工 carpenter from Hida, architect from Hida

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There was a special district in Edo where most of the carpenters lived :

Kanda daikuchoo 神田 大工町 carpenter district in Kanda
tate daikuchoo 竪大工町 (now in Uchi Kanda 内神田三丁目14番 )
yoko daikuchoo 横大工町 / minami daikuchoo 南大工町

This district was founded around 1640 in the Kanei period 寛永 and is mentioned in the
"Edo Map of Kanei 寛永江戸図".
Many carpenters who lived here worked directly for the Bakufu government for the official buildings of Edo.


source : 無涯塾日記

One famous (but fictional) character is the carpenter 吉五郎 Kichigoro in the story
三方一両損 sanbo ichiryo zon, where the famous magistrate 大岡越前守忠相 Oka Echizen is holding court.

The shop of a craftsman making the matoi 纏 standards , a pole with the fire fighters brigade mark, is also located here.
纏屋治郎右衛門 Matoiya Jiroemon

. shokuninmachi 職人町 district with craftsmen in Edo .

Now the 龍谷大学 Ryukoku University is located in this district.

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Another district where carpenters lived was



Umibedaikuchmachi 海辺大工町 Umibe Daikumachi carpenter district on the coast
Umibe Daikucho, Umibe Daiku-Cho , Umibe Daiku-machi
along the river 小名木川 Onagigawa.


Umibe is a district in 江東区 Koto Ward, next to Fukagawa.

River Onagigawa joins the Sumidagawa with the bridge 高橋 Takahashi as main access. Another bridge was 万年橋 Mannenbashi and then
the Shin-Takahashi 新高橋 New Takahashi Bridge. The bridge Takahashi (High Bridge) was build much higher than other bridges to avoid being swept away by flooding of the rivers.

After reclaiming the land the settlement along the river Onagigawa became w river port and was named Umibe Daikumachi in 1713.



Many carpenters skilled in building ships and boats came to live here, hence the name.
funadaiku 船大工 shipbuilder carpenter



The bottom of a wooden boat was often burned to make it more resistant to rotting.


source : adachi-hanga.com/ukiyo-e
歌川国芳 Utagawa Kuniyoshi
Detail from 東都三ツ股の図 Toto Mitsumata no Zu
View of Mitsumata in the Eastern Capital




. River Onagigawa 小名木川 .
and The Gyotoku Salt Fields 行徳塩田 Gyotoku enden

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- - - - - . Bashō-An 芭蕉庵 Basho-An in Fukagawa 深川 .
- Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Haiku Poet


source : homepage3.nifty.com/onihei-zue
Basho-An was near the Mannenbashi 万年橋 "Ten Thousand Year Bridge".


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source : 刃物 フルカワ
職人絵図 江戸時代 大工 (釿・ノミ・鋸・下げ振りなどが見える)


Craftsmen going out to work were called dejoku, deshoku 出職.
They went to the home of a client to work. The three most important deshoku for construction works 普請三職 were
大工 carpenter, shakan 左官 wall plasterer and tobi 鳶 construction workers.

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The carpenters left home early in the morning to make use of the daylight. Work usually started around 7:00 in the morning
They carried a box with their tools, an important status symbol of each carpenter.
He always kept the box at home over night. If a fire broke out in the neighbourhood he could throw his tool box into the drainage canal before the house (どぶ). So even if he lost his home and place to sleep, he still had his tools and could start all anew the next day.


source and more : たそがれ日記

doogubako 道具箱 Dogubako, tool box of a carpenter

At 10:00 there was a short break of about 30 minutes.
13:00 was time for a one-hour lunch break.
At 14:00, another short break of about 30 minutes. Including a smoke and a snack.
At 17:00 work was over and the carpenter could go home. On the way he might go to a bath house and be home at 19:00 for dinner.
Bedtime was early, at 20:00.
(There was no electric light in Edo . . . nights were dark, dark, dark.)
If he had to start earlier or work overtime to get a job done, he was payed extra money.

Because of bad weather he usually could not work for about 60 days in a year, leaving him without income for 2 months. His wife had to make ends meet.
He still had enough pocket money to have a drink of Sake at night and get some sweets for the children.

There was a humorous saying in Edo:

大工殺すにゃ刃物はいらぬ、雨の十日も降ればよい.
To kill a carpenter you do not need a sharp blade.
Just let it rain for 10 days.


Before doing some work the craftsman had to haggle about the price for a bit of work with his client, temadori 手間取.

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Kiba 木場


CLICK for more photos !

- quote -
Kiba - Lumberyards and Carpenters
Eitai-bashi (Eitai bridge) is the longest bridge in Edo, and one of the largest in the country. Though not nearly as famous as nearby Nihonbashi, it is probably a more important bridge for the citizens of Edo. The huge, semicircular arch is one of just three bridges spanning the lower reaches of the Sumida river, and linking central Edo with the residential and manufacturing districts on the eastern shore of the river. Although both Nihonbashi and Ryogoku-bashi are more well known, Eitai-bashi is nevertheless an important transportation link from central Edo to the busy lumberyards of Kiba.

Kiba is a low-lying district on the very edge of Edo bay, on the east bank of the Sumida river. It is a very blue-collar neighborhood, and most of the residents live in nagaya (row houses). Many of the people who live here are day laborers and construction workers, who toil in the vast lumberyards that give this district its name.

The word "kiba" literally means "place for wood". The area gets its name because it is the neighborhood designated by the Shogun for all lumber yards. Although many construction companies have offices in the central part of the city, they are prohibited from keeping a large stockpile of wood anywhere near the city center. Instead, they have to keep almost all of their wood stored in Kiba. This is a precaution taken to help prevent serious fires.

When Edo was first built, the main kiba, or lumber yards, were located on the west bank of the Sumida river, in places like Tsukiji and Hamacho. This was the most convenient location, since the wood could be transported there easily by river, and most of the construction work being done in the city was in the downtown areas around Nihonbashi, Kyobashi and Kanda. As the city began to spread out, construction companies set up smaller lumber yards in each part of the city. However, as the people of Edo discovered, this was an invitation to disaster. Fire has always been a serious problem for citizens of Edo. Nearly every building in the city is made of wood, and the houses are packed tightly together, especially in the shitamachi (downtown) areas of the city. If a fire gets started, it usually spreads very fast, and it may destroy many, many buildings before anyone can put it out.

In the crowded, narrow streets of the city, it is often hard to escape from a fire, and many people die every year from even small fires. There is even an old saying among city residents, that "fires and fistfights are the flowers of Edo". Both types of altercations flare up very easily in the crowded downtown neighborhoods. However, when they were planning and building their city, the early Shoguns never imagined that fires could cause as much damage as the Great Meireki Fire did in 1657.

The Great Meireki Fire was the worst catastrophe ever to strike the city, and even today, more than a century later, the city still bears scars from the disaster. Almost half a million people died in the flames, and over half of the city was burned to the ground. After the catastrophe was over, Tokugawa Tsunayoshi, the fifth Shogun, passed a series of laws and made several changes to the design of the city to help make sure that future fires could not spread so quickly or cause as much damage. One reason why the flames to spread rapidly was that there were many large lumber yards located in the downtown area. Once a big lumber yard catches fire, it is just about impossible to put out, and the flames jump so high that the firemen cannot stop them from spreading to other buildings nearby.

After the Great Meireki Fire, all carpenters and builders were ordered to move their lumber yards to the other side of the river, away from the heavily populated downtown area. The new neighborhood was given the name "Kiba". A number of other changes were made as well, such as widening the roads to create firebreaks, and organising local fire brigades. The job of a fireman is usually held by low-ranking samurai. It is a very dangerous and demanding job, but the firemen of Edo are highly respected, and many local communities look to current or former members of the fire brigade to become their local leaders and peace officers.



Kiba is a very low, swampy area that sometimes gets flooded at extremely high tides and during storms. Although this makes it a rather uncomfortable place to live, it is an ideal place for lumber yards. First of all, it was easy to build a vast network of canals in the area where the lumber yards were located. These canals have a dual purpose -- their main function is as transportation routes, to make it easier to bring wood to and from the lumber yards. In addition, the canals prevent fires from spreading from lumber yard to lumber yard. Although the high tides and floods can sometimes cause damage to the wood (especially if the wood remains under water for too long), it also has a positive effect. Termites cannot build their nests in swampy ground, and the occasional floods destroy any termite nests that have been established in the woodpiles, so the lumber yards of Kiba are almost immune to termite damage.



Wood is brought to Kiba from mountain forests far to the north and west of the city. Lumberjacks working in the forests cut down the tall, straight and hard-wooded trees such as sugi (cedar) and hinoki (cypress). These are the best types of wood for building houses, since the wood is straight, strong and very resistant to water. The logs are then cut into large, semifinished beams, which are tied together like a raft and transported downriver to Edo.

When the huge wooden beams reach Kiba, they are sold to individual lumber merchants or construction companies. The lumber merchants take the huge beams to their own lumber yard where carpenters saw them up into smaller boards and beams, storing them in the lumber yards until they are ready to use.

Most of the lumber merchants have close ties to the construction guilds in downtown Edo. Builders are among the more respected of craftsmen, and master builders can become very wealthy. However, for every master architect and builder, there are usually many lesser craftsmen, apprentices and day laborers who do the dirty work, like carrying heavy beams or bundles of shingles to and from a building site, or tearing down old buildings that are being replaced. The more skilled carpenters tend to live in middle-class areas in Nihonbashi, Kyobashi or Asakusa, while many lower-level workers live in the blue-collar districts near Kiba, where they queue up each day looking for temporary jobs on a construction site.
- source : edomatsu -


. Construction work - Introduction .
Organizing all the artisans to build a home in Edo !


. Kawase Hasui 川瀬巴水 (1883 - 1957) .


Kiba no Yugure 木場の夕暮れ Timber Yard, Evening


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. carpenter tools with Daruma .



koshibukuro だるまの腰袋 waist bag
kugibukuro 釘袋 nail bag


. kugi 釘 nail, Nagel - Introduction .

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Daiku Rokusa 大工六三 Rokusa the Carpenter
?Daiku Rokuzo, Daiku Rokuzō



Utagawa Kunisada
A portrait of Ichikawa Ichizo III as Rokusaburo the carpenter,
made for the forthcoming performances of Komamukae Tanomino Tsukkomi (a version of Mijikayo ukina no chirashigaki) at the Morita theatre in 1858.
- source : fitzmuseum.cam.ac.uk/gallery -

- quote -
OSONO ROKUSA
Sanzesô Nishiki Bunshô / Oku Dôsha Musume Sugegasa

The courtesan Osono, who belongs to the Fukushimaya house in Fukagawa, is ailing because of over-anxiety concerning her lover Komurasaki Rokusaburô (commonly called Rokusa). He has been dismissed from service as samurai because he lost a family treasure, a valuable poem card (shikishi) that had been entrusted to his keeping. .....
Osono's brother Chôan, a doctor who is more a charlatan than a skilled doctor, knows that Rokusa is a hopeless rônin. ...
... Osono, who is readying herself for departure, is met by Rokusa who has come back to kill her. Osono gives him a letter she had written to explain everything. Rokusa understands the circumstances and they go off together.
Trivia
The story of Osono and Rokusa is based on two real events which happened in Ôsaka in 1749: the 18th day of the 3rd lunar month of the 2nd year of the Kan'en era , the courtesan Osono (from the Minami pleasure district) and the carpenter Rokusa committed a double suicide. The same day, a courtesan from the Kita Shinchi pleasures district, who had killed her elder brother and was sentenced to death, was executed. The story of Osono and Rokusa is a fusion of these two real events.
In Sakurada Jisuke III's version, the actions and characters are shifted to Edo.
- source : kabuki21.com -


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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

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ishidooro 石燈篭 Ishidoro, stone lantern

元禄年中に寺を普請した棟梁が奉納した燈篭を江戸へ運ぼうとしたら、夜関係者が発熱し狂気のように皆燈篭のことを口走った。ゆえに江戸へは運ばず寺に返した。精霊が宿っているのだろう。

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kitsune 狐 fox

王子村稲荷は関八州の稲荷明神の棟梁で、毎年12月晦日に関八州の狐が社前に集まり火を灯す。その燃え方を見て周辺の人は作柄を占う。


................................................................................. Ehime 愛媛県
Joohen 城辺町 Johen

Wakamiya Jinja no ki 若宮神社の木
若宮神社には300年以上経った並木があったが、3年前に集会場を建てるので切り倒してしまった。その木を斬った棟梁は間もなく入院して亡くなり、他の樵も皆亡くなってしまった。

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大洲市 Ozu

yamaneko, yamainu 山猫,山犬
銃の名手左衛門が、山猫の住む「入らずの森」を開拓した。山猫は手出しができずにいたが、ある日娘が一夜の宿を求めて来て、左衛門は共に暮らした。ある日山犬に襲われた飛脚が「山猫の棟梁が左衛門のところに行っていなければ」と言うのを聞く。それが左衛門の耳にも入り、ついには正体を現した古猫をしとめる。


................................................................................. Hiroshima 広島県

funadamasama 船魂様 Funadama Sama
船魂様は女の神様で、女がひとりで乗船することを嫌う。ひとりで乗るときにはデコ(人形)を持って乗るとよいと言われている。船霊様として帆柱の下に収められるのはサイコロ2個と一文銭12枚、女のデコを1個である。サイコロは大工の棟梁が柳の木から新しく作ったもので、2と2の目が向かい合うように並べる。



................................................................................. Ishikawa 石川県
河内町 Kawachi

tengu 天狗
棟上げの時、天狗除けや魔除けのために、棟梁が屋根の上に六角の糸巻きの枠を立て、それに鯖をつるす。その後、鯖は川に流してしまうという。



................................................................................. Kagoshima 鹿児島県
大島郡 Oshima district

fuiguchi フイグチ
部落に住む大工の棟梁同士が喧嘩した際、ひとりの棟梁がフイグチをする性格であった。もうひとりの棟梁はそれを見抜いていてモドシグチを行った。するとクチを入れた棟梁は眠ったまま死んでしまった。


................................................................................. Kyoto 京都府
亀岡市 Kameoka

shironamazu 白鯰 White Namazu catfish
亀山城の別棟が少し歪んでいたので、棟梁が責任を取って堀に身を投げた。棟梁は白鯰となり、堀の主となった。水の浅くなった月の夜半、白鯰が頭を水面に出して城を見つめるという。


................................................................................. Miyagi 宮城県
栗駒町 Kurikoma

nyuudoo boozu 入道坊主 Nyudo Bozu
棟梁が着工式に呼ばれ、お祝いの魚を藁づとに包んで帰る途中、人気のない道で火にあたる八尺ばかりの入道坊主に会った。持っていた手斧をふりまわしながら通り過ぎたが、いつのまにか入道坊主は消えた。ムジナの仕業だという。


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柴田町 Shibata

amida no kakejiku 阿弥陀の掛軸
山の上集落の近江家は、旅の僧をもてなして阿弥陀様の書かれた掛軸をもらった。あるとき、近江家に普請に入った大工の頭領が、掛軸を盗んで逃げた。家を出た途端大雨が降り出し、狐狸が邪魔をした。雷が鳴り、橋が流れそうになる。命からがら家に帰ったが、掛軸はピカピカと光っていた。翌朝、棟梁はポックリ死んでしまった。掛軸は古道具屋に売り払われたが、今度は大きなネズミが出て道具屋が眠れない。祈祷師に拝んでもらうと元の家に返せという。こうして掛軸は返ってきた。



................................................................................. Osaka 大阪府

kaeruishi, kaeru ishi かえる石
大阪城のかえる石付近に行くと休みたくなる。その石に腰をかけたものは恍惚とし、そのうち屋形が浮かび出て女中が手招く。それで投身するものが絶えないという。淀君の怨霊、人柱に立った大工の棟梁とその女房の伝説、城普請の棟梁のだまし討ちなどの説がある。

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- reference -

- source : nichibun yokai database -
大工 101 legends to explore (00) /// 棟梁


絵巻に描かれた(鎌倉時代の)普請場の様子
- source : unko-mitsuhashi.blog -

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. WKD : daiku 大工 carpenter .

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. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. - Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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9/14/2015

tori-oi chasing away birds ritual

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. - Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .
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torioi, tori-oi, tori oi 鳥追 "chasing away the birds" ritual

tori oi uta 鳥追唄(とりおいうた)鳥追歌 song to chase away the birds,
bird dispersing songs, a kind of magic incantation


A ceremony held on the "Small New Year", now January 14 or 15.

A troupe of kado geinin 門芸人 "artists by the entrance" walked from house to house, performed their ritual songs with Shamisen and got some money in return.
They were active from the first day till the 15th day of the lunar New Year.



torioi (bird chasing),
a ceremony to pray for a rich harvest, which takes place on January 14. In the ceremony, children eat rice cakes in special torioi huts made of snow and then parade through the city beating wooden clappers while singing traditional songs in order to chase away birds that might damage crops.
City of Tokamachi, Niigata Prefecture
© web-japan.org/

..... tori oi (tori-oi) 鳥追 "Chasing away the birds".
..... hut, tori-oi goya 鳥追小屋(とりおいごや)
..... tower, tori-oi yagura 鳥追櫓(とりおいやぐら)
..... song, tori-oi uta 鳥追唄(とりおいうた)

tori-oi asobi 鳥追遊び enjoying the Torioi rituals

tori-oi boo 鳥追棒 stick to drive off birds


. WKD - Songs for all seasons .

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torioidayuu, tori-oi dayuu 鳥追大夫 (とりおいだゆう)
bird chasing song performer

..... tataki たたき
tataki no Yojiroo 敲の与次郎(たたきのよじろう)

torioi 鳥追い(とりおい) is an observance performed on January 14 or 15 in the villages. To get the birds (and other unwanted animals) out of the fields.

The torioi performers went from village to villate. They wear a straw sack on the back. They get some money for their performance, also some food like mochi. They were not allowed to wear robes of silk, only simple cotton. They had large straw hats to protect them from the rain.

They had special songs, for example
鶴は千年、亀は万年

"The crane lives thousand years,
the tortoise lives ten thousand years,
when they come together,
we all live long prosperous lives."


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Torioi Kannon 鳥追観音



The Torioi Kannon statue was made by priest Gyoki with the wish to show people an east pass-over to the paradise of Amida.

at the temple
. Myoohooji 妙法寺 Myoho-Ji . Fukushima, Aizu
The temple was founded by priest Tokuitsu in 807.

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Tori-oi in the Kazusa region 上総地方, Chiba 千葉県

. hoojari ほうじゃり Hojari amulets .



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torioibune, torioi-bune 鳥追舟 the Torioi Bird Chasing Boat
a Noh play from the Muromachi period





Tsukioka Kogyo




- reference - torioibune -

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人絹の鳥追笠の朱ケの紐
jinken no torioigasa no shuke no himo

the vermillion cord
from artificial silk
of the Bird-Chasing straw hat

Tr. Gabi Greve

竹下しづの女 Takeshita Shizunojo (1887 - 1951)
A member of Hototogisu -

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. - Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. densetsu 伝説 Japanese Legends .


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