Showing posts sorted by relevance for query #edobakufu. Sort by date Show all posts
Showing posts sorted by relevance for query #edobakufu. Sort by date Show all posts

10/21/2015

kajiya blacksmith

[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .
. Japanese Legends - 伝説 民話 昔話 – ABC-List .
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kajiya 鍛冶屋 kajishi 鍛冶師 blacksmith

. Takadono tatara 高殿鑪 Japanese Sword making .
- - - - - including
fuigo 鞴 bellows - an important tool for melting metal
Fuigo Jinja 鞴神社 "Bellows Shrine"
kaji no kami 鍛冶神 Deity of the blacksmiths



There were different blacksmiths for various special items needed in the town of Edo.

kugi kajiya 釘鍛冶屋 special blacksmith for nails
nokaji 野鍛冶 Most local blacksmiths used to make tools for agriculture like sickles and spades.
tookoo 刀工 sword maker

. tansu 箪笥 / 簞笥 -- たんす chest of drawers, Kommode .
The chests were made with all kinds of metal fittings and decorations.


source : wafusozai.com
saiga shokunin burui 「彩画職人部類(さいがしょくにんぶるい)」より
sword maker 「(刀)鍛冶」


. kugi 釘 nail, Nagel - Introduction .


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teppoo kaji 鉄砲鍛冶 craftsmen producing Teppo guns


source : members3.jcom.home.ne.jp/6785fmqm

- quote -
Nagahama - Shiga prefecture
The skills needed to produce the kazari kanagu (metal decorations) that decorate hikiyama (fetsival floats) can be traced back to the gunsmiths of old Nagahama.
Guns, the first of which were brought by Portuguese sailors to Tanegashima off Kagoshima Prefecture in Kyushu during the Muromachi era (14th-16th centuries), soon began to be made in old Kunitomo Village in the Nagahama area.
Gunsmithing established itself in this area, and gunsmiths formed a big group known as Kunitomo Teppo Kaji (Kunitomo Gunsmiths).
Guns manufactured in Nagahama, which became a major center of matchlock production, were characterized not only by their functionality but also the beauty of their decorations. Their barrels were ornamented using an inlay technique borrowed from metalworking to create patterns by engraving and cutting off parts of the barrel and fitting another metal into the resultant grooves.
Gunsmiths from Kunitomo were invited by the townsmen of Nagahama to utilize their mastery of inlaying metal to make kazari kanagu for hikiyama. Today in Nagahama, kazari kanagu artist Kiyoshi Tsuji continues the mastery and tradition of inlaying metal.
Kunitomo Teppo no Sato Matchlock Museum - 534 Kunitomo-cho, Nagahama-shi, Shiga
- source : mtlo.co.jp/us/valueone/metal/nagahama -


source : jti.co.jp/tobacco-world/journal

Another famous quarter of the Teppo gunsmiths was in Sakai, Osaka, Teppo Kajiyashiki cho
鉄砲鍛冶屋敷町 / 1-3-22 Kitahatago-cho-Nishi, Sakai-ku, Sakai City
The art of gunsmiths was brought by 橘屋又三郎 Tachibanaya Matasaburo from Tanegashima, and soon the region became Japan's largest producer of matchlock guns.
In the peaceful times of the Edo period, they also made たばこ包丁 sharp knives to cut tobacco.

. teppoo, teppô 鉄砲 Teppo, gun, musket, matchlock, Gewehr .

under construction
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- - - - - special districts and quarters for the blacksmiths in Edo:



. Kajibashi 鍛冶橋 Kajibashi Bridge, "Blacksmith Bridge" .
This neighborhood is home to people who specialise in iron work.

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- - - - - Chiyoda Kanda Kajichoo, Kajimachi 千代田区 神田 鍛冶町


source : gakuyaura.chesuto.jp

They use hand and feet to work. The one on the right uses his foot to work the box bellows (箱鞴 hako fuigo) to regulate the heat of the fire.


Kajiyachoo, Kajiyamachi 神田鍛冶屋町 in Kanda
This district was established in 1603.
Its Bakufu government supervisor was bakufu kajigata tooryoo 幕府鍛冶方棟梁
Takai Iori 高井伊織
who was also responsible for the blacksmith guild in the Eight Provinces of Kanto (Sagami, Musashi, Awa, Kazusa, Shimousa, Hitachi and Ueno).
Apart from the blacksmiths, there lived other craftsmen working with iron and metal, like the
imonoshi 鋳物師 metal casters
kamashi 釜師 making metal water pots for the tea ceremony - and others.
Many were re-settled by Tokugawa Ieyasu from Sunpu (Shizuoka) and also made the metal parts used for the many buildings in the growing town of Edo.
It was the center of the kinzoku koogyoo  金属工業 metal industry in Edo.

The Fuigo matsuri 吹子祭 , 吹革祭 Festival of the Bellows was celebrated in these quarters with extra fervor and joy.


CLICK for more street signs!

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Minami Kaji-machi 南鍛冶町  South blacksmith's village



Kanda kanamono doori  神田金物通 street of the metal workers


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- quote -
Blacksmith Divinity - Okinawa
Studies related to blacksmithing in Okinawa have taken multi-angled approaches, i.e.archaeological, historical, folkloristic, and also industrial and technological histories. Since iron is not produced in Okinawa, the development of steel making and blacksmithing techniques lagged behind other advanced areas. Thirst for iron and its riches may have well been the source for Okinawan legends regarding the advent of iron and blacksmithing techniques. Seemingly, however, it remains presumable, only through folk tales, as to when, from where, and how the aspired skills in steel making and the art of blacksmithing came to Okinawa. Thus further archaeological progress is needed in the study of this issue. On the other hand, preceding folk studies have taken up a wide range of themes including Yago (屋号)---occupation and/or location-based household nicknames, which may refer to a physical feature unique to family members, toponyms, annual ceremonial festivals and community events, such as bellows festivals, traditional songs, ballads and legends. However the availability of a detailed description of blacksmith divinities remains limited to date.

In Okinawa, ex-blacksmith families own most of the “blacksmith divinity” images. These are mostly in the form of hanging scrolls. Okinawan Blacksmiths{by Hiroaki Fukuchi (福地曠昭) Kaifu-sha 1989} has numerous remarks from blacksmiths interviewed. However, description of the images themselves remain scarce. Quoted below is Mr. Koji Asaoka (朝岡康二) refering to Akaya (阿嘉屋), one of the blacksmith families, which once flourished in Kumoji, Naha:

Originally, the balcksmith family Nareira (宮平) headed the “Mindakari (新村渠) Kanja (Blacksmith) Family”. Akaya, a family of court painters, up until the great-grandfather’s generation, joined Nareira in the mid Meiji Period (latter 19th century), whereby Akaya acquired the blacksmithing technique to reestablish itself as the blacksmith family Akakaji (阿嘉鍛冶). The first master of Akakaji painted and gave out freely many hanging scrolls with the Blacksmith Divinity image to his fellow workers. He had a natural talent for painting, as his ancestors used to be court artists. Although many of these hanging scrolls have been scattered about and lost, several former blacksmith families in Okinawa preserve them. The blacksmith divinity hanging scroll uses the complete mainland style that you would find in Kanayama-ko (金山講) hanging scrolls used in blacksmiths’ self-support gatherings i.e. Kanayama-ko, Japan. In short, Kanayama-sama (金山様) divinity is painted in the center, as Yokoza (横座) the bellow operator sits on the left, while Sente (先手) the assistant sledgehammer swings down from the right. Excluding minor differences, the basic composition was shared all over Japan. Notably, however, the blacksmithing images (Mainland Japanese style) are completely irrelevant to the blacksmithing procedures practiced in Okinawa.

In Japan, the Kanayama-sama divinity hanging scroll would be found in alcoves (床の間) on occasions of Kanayama-ko self-support gatherings. In Okinawa, however, the image is believed to have been used in annual bellows festivals, as self-help groups equivalent to the Kanayama-ko were never formed by Okinawan blacksmiths. (Ref. Koji Asaoka, Ironware Culture of Japan-Comparative Ethnology of Blacksmith, Chapter Four: Okinawan Blacksmith and Ironware Culture, p.184)

Fuchiyue (鞴祭: bellows’ festival) is respected by Okinawan blacksmiths as the hallmark of annual events. It is commonly celebrated on November 8th according to the lunar calendar, in Japan, whereas in Okinawa it is celebrated, by some, on November 7th, or for two days (November 6th and 7th) or for three days (November 7th to 9th).
During Fuchiyue the image of the bellows divinity is respectfully placed in front of the bellows, as sledgehammers, iron holders and other blacksmith tools are put as offerings. Prayers are offered to banish fire, accidents and injury throughout the year. Special dishes are prepared and shared within the neighborhood. In some cases blacksmith families visit and worship Okuma Kanja-ya (奥間鍛冶屋), the first legendary blacksmith enshrined in Okinawa, just as blacksmiths on Miyako Island would visit Funadatedo (船立堂), the sacred praying spot for blacksmiths.

According to Asaoka, the introduction of boxed bellows from mainland Japan, more specifically Sakai, Osaka, relates, particularly, to the attachment that Okinawan blacksmiths have formed to their bellows festival. Fuigo-cho (吹子町) the bellows ”manufacturers” quarter of commercially advanced Osaka is believed to have manufactured standardized boxed bellows for nationwide distribution. Asaoka states that because many Okinawan legends of blacksmith divinities speak not only of iron and the advent of steel-making techniques, but also of the introduction of boxed bellows, this proves that boxed bellows were accepted technologically advanced devices. Bellows festivals in the Ryukyu Archipelago have maintained considerably different ritualistic styles when compared to other village festivals, such as Tanetori-sai (種取祭), seed-sowing ceremonies and bountiful harvest thanksgiving ceremonies (豊年祭). Thus Asaoka retains that Okinawan bellows festivals originated on the mainland and, once introduced to Okinawa, were quickly diffused throughout the Ryukyus.
(Ref. Asaoka, Study of Ironware Culture in the Archipelago of the Ryukyus, pp. 188, 204, 257)

Images of Blacksmith Divinity and the Goddess/God Kanayago (金屋子)
Mainland Japan

In the northern Tohoku area of Japan, during blacksmith self-support gatherings, Kanayama-ko, alcoves or tokonoma (床の間) were adorned with “blacksmith divinity” hanging scroll images. Found in midwestern Chugoku, Japan, instead, would be the “Goddess Kanayago” and pictorial stories on “the birth of steeling technique”. During the Edo period, the scrolled images and pictorial stories were worshipped by tatara steel laborers, blacksmiths and casting workers all over Japan, mainly at iron producing mines.
Blacksmith divinities in ancient Japanese myth included Hinokagutsuchino-kami (火之迦具土神), Kanayamahikonomikoto (金山毘古命/金山彦命), Kanayama-himegami (金山毘売神/金山姫命), Amenomahitotsukami (天目一箇神) and more. On the otherhand, Inarigami (稲荷神), originally a god of rich harvest, was altered to a god of fire, eventually becoming a blacksmith divinity. This occurred, presumably, through the sacred rite of “Ohitaki” (御火焚) for an abundant harvest in the Kyoto and Kinki areas.

The word “tatara” originated in India, meaning blast furnace. In Japan, “tatara” appears in the names of ancient goddesses in Kojiki (古事記) and Nihonsyoki (日本書紀) e.g. Seyatatara-hime (勢夜陀多良比売), Hototataraisusuki-himenomikoto (富登多多良伊須須岐比売命) or Himetataraisukiyori-hime (比売多多良伊須気余理比売). According to myth, Izanaminokami (伊邪那美神) had her private parts (mihoto) seared as she delievered her baby Hinokagutsuchino-kami, and was, thereafter, banished to the netherworld (黄泉). It may well be in this light that the word “hoto” frequently appears in the names of ancient goddesses. Furthermore a wind way bamboo kiro (木呂竹) is inserted from the hole “hoto” to connect the bellows to the basin of a mud furnace, whereby a correlation between “tatara” and the goddesses is also suggested.

Kanayago Shrine in Nishihida (西比田), Hirose Town (広瀬町), Nogi County (能義郡), Shimane Prefecture, is an established center of worship for Kanayago, the goddess/god of steelmaking and blacksmithing. According to the stories of her advent and the origin of the shrine (which dates back to the Edo period), a snowy egret carried Kanayago on its back and flew from Harima Province to a Japanese Judas tree in Kuroda Forest, Nishihida village, Nogi County, Izumo Province.

Since Kanayago has also been worshipped as a child-loving goddess, tatara steel workers in Kamisaibara Village (上斎原村), Tomata County (苫田郡) Okayama Prefecture, for example, are known to have shown their faith in Kanayago (originally the tatara steel workers guardian deity) by inviting children to their homes every New Year (January 1st to 3rd) to tell them the old tales and legends. (Ref. Akinori Maruyama ,“Goddess Kanayago and Children: Folklore from a Tatara Village”)

In contrast, Kanayago’s hatred of adult women (who menstruate and bare children) was a source for the taboo against menstrual blood (赤不浄) as a symbol of uncleanness. However it is frequently noted that the uncleanness of death, which is symbolized by the color black (黒不浄), was readily accepted or even favored in these legends.

Mandarin oranges were believed to have been an offering at the bellows festival, much like as done by public bath owners and glue makers, each of whom were fire-relevant by trade, who gave away rice cakes and oranges to children. According to a legend in Yamaguchi Prefecture, an ugly one-eyed blacksmith deity got away from a barking dog by climbing up a mandarin orange tree.Fierce concentration at their furnaces frequently cost tatara steel workers the loss of an eye. The fact created one-eyed blacksmith divinities legend which in its turn are considered to have been diverted to single-eyed ogres of legend, oni (鬼). It is, presumably, in this context that toponyms such as Onimura (鬼村) and Onigashiro (鬼ヶ城) are often located close to iron mines.

Mandarin oranges were believed to have been an offering at the bellows festival, much like as done by public bath owners and glue makers, each of whom were fire-relevant by trade, who gave away rice cakes and oranges to children. According to a legend in Yamaguchi Prefecture, an ugly one-eyed blacksmith deity got away from a barking dog by climbing up a mandarin orange tree.Fierce concentration at their furnaces frequently cost tatara steel workers the loss of an eye. The fact created one-eyed blacksmith divinities legend which in its turn are considered to have been diverted to single-eyed ogres of legend, oni (鬼). It is, presumably, in this context that toponyms such as Onimura (鬼村) and Onigashiro (鬼ヶ城) are often located close to iron mines.

Images of the Goddess/God Kanayago 金屋子 are largely categorized into the following three styles:
A) A Goddess on a Fox



A goddess in a Chinese dress, wearing a long, thin scarf (領巾) rides on a white fox, with a sword in one hand and a gemstone in the other. In other instances, she may have a magic cane, or wear a jewelled crown and armor, holding a pouch in one hand. The fox wears a jewel in its tail, and may sometimes have a hoe in its mouth. The goddess in Chinese dress, who wears the long, thin scarf (領巾) and carries the sword and gemstone, resembles, in appearance, Dakini (荼吉尼天), the harvest divinity. However Dakini is recognized as the original Buddhist form (honji 本地) of Inari-gami in accordance with the philosophy of honji suijaku (本地垂迹) a theory expounding the correspondence of Shinto and Buddhist deities. Imaginably, Inari-gami and Dakini, both of whom came to be accepted and worshipped as fire and blacksmith divinities, could have been confused to be represented both in the same scene.

B) A Goddess and Two Attendants (Male and Female)
Mainly found in hanging scroll images, which depict the story of the origin of Kanayago Shrine or scenes of steel-making and blacksmithing. Frequently a long-haired woman in sacerdotal kimono, attends a holy area located close to a mountain top and sanctified with a set of hallowed straw ropes (注連縄). A lady of the court in a red hakama and over-robe would be found on the right and a nobleman on the left, both may be standing or seated, ready to serve the goddess. A white fox may accompany the two attendants. At the foot of the mountain, there is a smith’s yard with the foot-pedaled bellows humming with steeling and refining. Court-attired noblemen and blacksmiths (in their medieval hats, eboshi, and aprons, hitatare) would be found laboriously at work.

C) Sampo-kojin
(三宝荒神) Image
A series of monochrome hanging scrolls in wood block print, which Kanayago Shrine issued and distributed from the end of the Edo to the early Meiji periods, would find the Kanayago deity seated on a lotus pedestal as Sampo-Kojin. In northern Tohoku, Sampo-kojin as a standing figure is frequently painted on hanging scrolls as a blacksmith divinity. Composition-wise, Sampo-kojin often stands erect on the boxed bellows and blacksmiths are working underneath. Oni, the ogres, are also at work in the smith’s yard, sending wind to the bellows or hammering down as Sente, the assistant hammers.


source : xxx
金屋子神 - 出雲の伝承 Deity Kanayago from Izumo

Okinawan Images of Blacksmith Divinity
The four blacksmith divinity scrolls that we were able to view during our field studies in the Yanbaru (山原) area, northern Okinawa, had basically the same composition, although they differed in the details. They belong to Type C, as mentioned above, in which the blacksmith deity is expressed as Sampo-kojin (三宝荒神). Furthermore, the four scrolled images show three Oni (鬼), ogres, that are assisting as Sente (先手), a woman in kimono, who is operating the bellows as Hakozashi (箱差し) or Fuigozashi (鞴差し) and a man wearing formal headwear (烏帽子) and an apron (直垂), working as Yokaza (横座). During the forging of iron, the boxed bellows would be found in totally different positions in Mainland Japan, Okinawa and China. At least in the latter medieval period (the Kamakura and the Muromachi eras) in Mainland Japan, it is believed to have been a common practice that Yokaza alone, without Fuigozashi, operated the bellows.

On the other hand, it was a characteristic on Okinawa to have Fuigozashi sit behind Yokaza and operate the boxed bellows, as Yokaza worked without touching the bellows. The first job that an apprentice, in an Okinawan blacksmith’s yard, would be assigned to was Fuigozashi. If so, even though Meuchi (前打 i.e. Sente) and Yokaza are painted in different positions, the four hanging scrolls do not contradict with blacksmithing practices in Okinawa, because they depict how Yokaza and Fuigozashi played distinguishable roles from each other, as Asaoka indicates. Most hanging scroll images from Iwate and Gifu Prefectures (Mainland Japan) have also been found to differentiate between Yokaza and Fuigozashi.

However, the female Fuigozashi (bellows operators) that are in blacksmithing images in hanging scrolls from Okinawa (fig.21,23,24) are rarely found elsewhere. As we have discusssed, most blacksmith divine images in Okinawa are believed to be copies of the originals (that are presumed to have their roots in, and have come to Okinawa from, Mainland Japan, or have been drawn, relying upon information that had been passsed on by word of mouth. Akakanja would have made models of such originals for the many blacksmith divinity hanging scroll images that they created. It is, therefore, not totally deniable that changes might have been made by the painters to reflect more of the real blacksmithing practices in Okinawa.

Although the three headed Sampo-kojin-like figure was depicted frequently as the blacksmith deity in the hanging scrolls that we viewed (fig.24), the balcksmith deity in Okinawa is also imagined as a goddess at times(fig.23). It may be possible to assume the influential role that the myth of the Goddess Kanayago from Izumo Province had while crossing over the sea to Okinawa. We found an example in which a Sampo-kojin-like Blacksmith Divine is represented by three female faces while wearing feminine clothing, whereas Sampo-kojin should be represented by wrathful faces. This image was likely adopted by local painters to fill the gap between the faith of the people and the diffusion of painted images.

Did the images of blacksmith divinities accompany the bellows when they were introduced onto Okinawa from Mainland Japan, or could the images have possibly taken different routes? The question entails further progress in these studies, as well as the discovery of more blacksmith divine images from Okinawa which have hitherto been unseen.

The widespread practicing of bellows festivals was, presumably, fueled by the orders and policies issued by the royal government of the Ryukyus, according to Asaoka (Ironware Culture of Japan--Comparative Ethnology of Blacksmithing, p.257). Blacksmith divinity scrolls could well have been one of the most significant ritual tools that popuralized the bellows festivals. In the 20th year of the King Sho Shitsu (尚質: 1667), the dynasty of the Ryukyus started the “Stationed Blacksmith System” (在村鍛冶制) administered by Ko shoken (向象賢). As Kaji-yaku (blacksmith officials) assigned to villages were non-craftsmen, the system is considered to have spurred the presence of Akakanja and other specialized blacksmith families, as well as that of traveling blacksmith (廻村鍛冶) which was to emerge later. The roles of the Kaji-yaku are assumed to have shifted from blacksmithing to the management of the bellows festivals and smiths’ yards. (Ref. Asaoka,Ironware Culture of Japan-- Comparative Ethnology of Blacksmithing, pp. 152, 193, 224, 249).

In Okinawa the blacksmith divine is worshipped at many uganju (praying spot). Also blacksmith tales are sung in ancient ballads like “Kajiyadi Fu”. Believed to have brought forth the advent of farming with iron farming tools, the balcksmith divinity is also identified with the farming deity. (Ref. Hiroaki Fukuchi, Okinawan Blacksmiths, pp. 255 to 266). According to legend the Kunigami Aji (国頭按司 chief of Kunigami Village), Kaniman (金万・金満), who was the second son of Okuma Ufuya(奥間大親), the head of Jana Village in the Urasoe quarter, and a younger brother of King Satto (察度王), was believed to have founded the Okuma Kanja Blacksmith family. For helping Kanemaru (金丸), the future King Sho En (尚円), Okuma Kanja was said to have had his second son authorized as Kunigami Aji. The presence of Okuma Kanja continues to date as the ancestor of all Okinawan blacksmiths. Having the power attained through blood-related Monchu (門中) clans and the privileges, such as tax exemptions, and abounding riches, received through such ties, this glorious story of how one family member was promoted to Kunigami Aji is considered to have been suitable for the descendants of blacksmiths. Furthermore, they connected the legend of Okuma Kanja to the myth of the farming divinity and the advent of farming, through which Kaniman was, likely, idealized and idolized as a great ancestor and founder of blacksmith families. Today, Kaniman Aji and his wife are enshrined as founders of Uekaneshi Tunchi (上兼次殿内) or Kaniman Tunchi (金万殿内), in Kaneshi, Nakijin Village (今帰仁村), where the image of the blacksmith divinity has been traditionally recognized as that of Kaniman-sama(fig.35).

References: . . .
- source : okinawazuzou -

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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

里並に藪の鍛冶屋も祭哉
satonami ni yabu no kajiya mo matsuri kana

even in the village woods
the blacksmiths celebrate -
festival of the bellows

Tr. Gabi Greve

. WKD : kigo for kaji 鍛冶 blacksmith .


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. Japanese Legends - 伝説 民話 昔話 – ABC-List .



........................................................................................................... Kyoto 京都府

Inariyama 稲荷山 Fushimi Inari Shrine 伏見稲荷神社
All the blacksmiths of the region come here to worship.
Once the 三条宗近の鍛冶師 blacksmith Munechika from Sanjo had a dream given to him by the 土祖神 local deity. If he would take the earth from Inariyama and mix it with the water for the blade (刃の湯) he would be able to make wonderful sword blades.
When he did as told in his dream, indeed, his sword became quite famous as Kogitsunemaru 小狐丸.
Now all the blacksmiths and 金物師 metal workers come here to worship.


稲荷山 小鍛冶。刀匠・宗近が稲荷の使いに相づちを打たせ、小狐丸という名刀を作り上げた。
by Ogata Gekkō (1859-1920)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


"Imayo Kokaji”Sanjo Kokaji (Swordsmith)
. Azuma Odori 東踊 Azuma Dance .




........................................................................................................... Yamagata 山形県
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南陽市 Nanyo City

. blacksmith making a kanabo 金棒 metal stick .


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- source : nichibun yokai database -
鍛冶屋 (36) / 鍛冶 (24) - collecting

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. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. - Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. densetsu 伝説 Japanese Legends - Introduction .


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8/02/2015

sankin kotai

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. Edo period - History .
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sankin kootai 参勤交代 Sankin Kotai Daimyo attendance in Edo
daimyoo gyooretsu, daimyō gyōretsu 大名行列 Daimyo procession


. samurai 侍, buke 武家, bushi 武士   .
Lord of a Domain, Daimyo, daimyoo 大名

. hatamoto 旗本 samurai class .





. shukuba 宿場 post station, postal station .
along the Sankin Kotai roads
Honjin (本陣):
Rest areas and lodgings built for use by samurai and court nobles. Honjin were not businesses; instead, large residences in the post towns were often designated as lodging for government officials.

. Kaido 街道 Highways used by the Daimyo .

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- quote
Sankin-kōtai 参勤交代 "alternate attendance",
a daimyo's alternate-year residence in Edo - was a policy of the Tokugawa shogunate during most of the Edo period of Japanese history. The purpose was to strengthen central control over the daimyo, or major feudal lords.

History
Toyotomi Hideyoshi had earlier established a similar practice of requiring his feudal lords to keep their wives and heirs at Osaka Castle or the nearby vicinity as hostages for loyal behavior. Following the Battle of Sekigahara and the establishment of the Tokugawa Shogunate, this practice was continued at the new capital of Edo as a matter of custom. It was made compulsory for the tozama daimyo in 1635, and for the fudai daimyo from 1642. Aside from an eight year period under the rule of Tokugawa Yoshimune, the law remained in force until 1862.


Sightseers and merchants gazing at an entourage (sixth panel) from
"Folding Screen Depicting Scenes of the Attendance of Daimyo at Edo Castle",
National Museum of Japanese History

Description
The details changed throughout the 26 decades of Tokugawa rule, but generally, the requirement was that the daimyo of every han move periodically between Edo and his fief, typically spending alternate years in each place. His wife and heir were required to remain in Edo as hostages while he was away. The expenditures necessary to maintain lavish residences in both places, and for the procession to and from Edo, placed financial strains on the daimyo, making them unable to wage war. The frequent travel of the daimyo encouraged road building and the construction of inns and facilities along the routes, generating economic activity.

There were a number of exceptions for certain fudai daimyo in the vicinity of Edo, who were allowed to alternate their attendance in Edo every six months instead. Temporary exceptional dispensations were also occasionally granted due to illness or extreme extenuating circumstances.

In principle, the sankin-kōtai was a military service to the shogun. Each daimyo was required to furnish a number of soldiers (samurai) in accordance with the kokudaka assessment of his domain. These soldiers accompanied the daimyo on the processions to and from Edo.

With hundreds of daimyo entering or leaving Edo each year, processions (大名行列 daimyō-gyōretsu) were almost daily occurrences in the shogunal capital. The main routes to the provinces were the kaidō. Special lodgings, the honjin (本陣), were available to daimyo during their travels.

The sankin-kōtai figures prominently in some Edo period ukiyo-e (woodblock prints), as well as in popular theater such as kabuki and bunraku.
- source : wikipedia

- quote -
Picture of Daimyō Visiting the Castle on New Year's Day
The processions of all the daimyo, or domain lords, were one of the famous sights of the New Year in Edo.
The daimyō leave from their Edo residences to arrive at the castle at about seven in the morning.
The date of this paying of respects was arranged according to the rank of each daimyo
and held not only on New Year's Day but went on over three days.
- source : Tokyo Metropolitan Museum -

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NHK samurai drama, August 2015

Ichiroo 一路 Ichiro "One Road"

The adventures of Sankin Kotai, as experienced by 小野寺一路 Onodera Ichiro.

Ichiro’s father dies suddenly in a fire at his home. 19-year-old Ichiro, who had studied in Edo, has to come home. His father was supposed to prepare Sankin kotai and lead the lines of his Daimyo to visit Edo.

After his father's death, Ichiro leads the procession of Sankin kotai and heads to Edo, relying on his father's notes about the proceedings. During the journey, he faces various problems and schemes which target his family.




based on a book by 浅田次郎 Asada Jiro




- reference -

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- - - - - Legends about Sankin Kotai and Daimyo Gyoretsu - - - - -
There are quite a few tales with the fox or badger. Sometimes they compare their ability in shapeshifting.


............................................................................ Aomori 青森県

The foxes from 三戸 Sannohe
The fox from Akasaka 赤坂の狐 and the fox from Nagane 長根の狐 held a contest in shapeshifting.
The fox from Nagane transformed into a Daimyo procession, which looked quite real with the regional lord and all, when bowing to it from under a tree. The fox of Nagane got caught by the official vassals of the Daimyo and was put to death.



............................................................................ Fukushima 福島県
湖南町 Konan

O-Suga sama お菅さま "Lady Suga"
O-Suga Sama was the wife of the Shogun in Edo. He had been up in Ezo エゾ (Northern Japan and Hokkaido) and since she missed his love so much, she came after him. But she fell sick on the road and eventually committed suicide by drowning in a nearby pond.
She was the youngest of three sisters. When she was a child she liked to roam the forests and look for silkworms. She fed them with leaves and cared for them.

The place is called "O-Suga Sama" and people come here to pray for the well-being of their silk-worms. She observed the silk worms munching leaves with joy and told them:
neesan kuu wa ねえさん食うわ. Since then the leaves were called "kuwa クワ".

When her husband passed the area on his way back, he dreamed that she has become the mist on mount 高井原山 Takaraibarayama to moisten the kuwa leaves.
Her name was actually "O-Sugi お杉", Lady Cedar, but that turned to "O-Suga" in the local dialect.

During the procession of Sankin Kotai there was a great serpent up on a willow tree along the road. It displeased the vassals of the Daimyo and was thus driven away and had to move to Fukushima. When a branch of this willow tree breaks off, there was blood flowing from the wound. So in the end the whole tree was cut off.
This place is called "O-Suga Sama".

. silk 絹 kinu legends .
kuwa 桑 mulberry tree / kuwago 桑子 "kuwa child", "mulberry child", - silkworm



............................................................................ Hiroshima 広島県

. Osangitsune オサンギツネ / 於三狐 O-San kitsune fox with three tails .

Wakamiya no Iwa 若宮の岩 - 大和町 Daiwa

原田備前守が参勤交代で萩原を通ったとき、若宮の岩から白い蛇が現れた。ここを城にしろとのお告げだと思い、城を建てて永住したという。昭和に入ってその岩がトンネル掘削の邪魔になったので、ダイナマイトで壊そうとしたら暴発して作業員が怪我をした。神の住む岩である。

狐,狸 Fox and Badger
昔、於三という悪い狐と、四国の讃岐にいる於三に劣らぬ悪き狸が、どちらが化けるのが上手か比べあった。於三の番がきたとき、於三は今度大名行列に化けるので来てくれといった。約束の日に行くと果たして大名行列が来た。狸が本性を現して近づくと、侍に斬られてしまった。



............................................................................ Hyogo 兵庫県

Shibaemon 芝右衛門 - tanuki and kitsune 狸 - 狐
淡路に芝右衛門という狸がいて、阿波の狸合戦に来て働いたが、その後京都へ上って伏見の狐に遇った。京の狐は口ばかりで腕の程も知れぬから、1つ腕前を見せてくれといわれたので、芝右衛門は翌日大名行列を見せた。盛大な大名行列で、狐は驚きこれは殺してしまわないといけないと思い、次の日におれも大名行列を見せるから稲荷の鳥居に来てくれといった。芝右衛門が約束どおり行くと文句の付けようのない大名行列だったので手を打ち「ヤレヤレ」といってほめたが、それは本物の大名行列で芝右衛門は撃ち殺された。



............................................................................ Kochi 高知県

. The Old Tanuki from 奈半利町 Nahari town .



............................................................................ Nara 奈良県

shirogitsune 白狐 the curse of the white fox
The Lord of Yamato Koriyama 大和郡山 had caught a white fox 白狐 and killed it. The white fox appeared in his dream and asked to have a shrine built so he could go to paradise. But the Lord did not do as he was asked by the spirit. Therefore the white fox cursed him. During his next procession to Edo he behaved quite crazy, like bewitched by the fox. So his family name was taken away and the family line stopped.


. shirogitsune 白狐 Legends about the White Fox .



............................................................................ Niigata 新潟県

Dankuro the Fox and Sankichi the Tanuki 団九郎,三吉 from Sado 佐渡
団九郎狐は、佐渡に住むたちの悪い古狸の三吉を憎んでいた。あるとき信濃川のほとりで団九郎は三吉と出会う。団九郎は三吉をおだてて酒屋の小僧や大入道に化けるなどさせる。団九郎はお礼に自分の芸も見せるといい、次の日に街道に来るようにいう。三吉が約束の場所で待っていると大名行列がやってくる。三吉は感心して行列の前に飛び出るが、それは本物の大名行列で、捕らえられて食べられてしまう。
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佐渡島には狢が群れをなして住んでおり、その首領の名前を団三郎と言った。鎌倉時代の末期、狐が渡って来て、団三郎と妖術の勝負をした。狐は嫁入りの行列をして見せた。そこで団三郎は大名行列をして見せると狐に行った。狐は大名行列のあまりの見事さに驚いて近寄ったら、その行列は本物で、狐は殺されてしまった。それ以来、佐渡島に狐は来なくなった。

mujina 狢 the Mujina badger from Sado 佐渡
The Mujina badger from Sado and the Fox from 越後 Echigo held a contest in shapeshifting.
The fox shapeshifted into a fire, but was soon found out.
The mujina shapeshifted into a Daimyo Gyoretsu and no one found this strange. So the mujina won.



............................................................................ Yamagata 山形県

遊佐町
onshoo no tama 宝珠の玉
小坊が狐の宝珠の玉を盗んでやろうと、子狐をだました。狐たちが玉を取り返そうと画策するが、のけものにされた狐が計画を小坊に漏らした。大名行列に化けてやってきた狐たちは、本堂に閉じ込められ、小坊の話した犬に噛み付かれて死んだものもいた。



............................................................................ Yamaguchi 山口県

tanuki to kitsune 狸,狐 the badger and the fox

化け上手な阿波狸が、中国地方へ股旅をし、周防の国で狐に化けくらべを申し込んだ。まず阿波狸が、翌々日の午前10時頃に、毛利侯の行列に化けてみせることになった。狸は、その日時に本物の参勤交代の行列が通ることを知っていた。当日、狐は狸が化けたものと信じ込み、狸との約束通り拍手喝采したので、侍に捕らえられて斬り殺されてしまったという。


- source : ukiyoeota/status -

Foxes shapeshift as humans and perform a daimyo gyoretsu.
狐たちが人間を化かして大名行列

- reference : yokai database - nichibun.ac.jp -

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参勤交代 : 土橋章宏

- reference - books about 参勤交代 -

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This is probably the definitive work on sankin-kotai in English.

- quote -
What is Sankin-kōtai?
[Sankin-kōtai is] the Alternate Attendance Policy. Established by the Tokugawa Shōgunate, this system required all daimyo to live in Edo for a certain period of time, often every other year.

The daimyō were required to attend (provide service to) the shōgun in Edo and so they set up residences within the city. I like to think of them as embassies from the provinces. The daimyō would bring samurai “staff” from their domains to serve in Edo as well, so these were essentially provincial courts accompanied by a military staff. The daimyō residences included a small palace for the lord and domainal administration as well as barracks for the lower ranking samurai who accompanied the lord.

Each lord generally maintained 3 residences in Edo, though some had more. The land was granted to them by the shōgunate and could be confiscated or redistributed at the discretion of the shōgun or his council of advisors.



. . . . . The trip to Edo and the trip back to the domain were also costly.
The daimyō had to walk, with family and court and staff and in tow, in long processions called 大名行列 daimyō gyōretsu daimyō processions. These elaborate parades took days. But with so many domains coming and going all the time, they were a constant site on the major routes in and out of Edo. There are many great Edo Era prints of these and accounts from foreigners and Japanese alike agreed they were something to see!

- - - - - further info and links :
- source : Marky Star -

- reference - books about sankin kotai -

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A Daimyo Gyoretsu is just coming over 日本橋 Nihonbashi in Edo,
the first station of the Tokaido road to Kyoto.


CLICK for more photos !

. Utagawa Hiroshige 歌川広重 (1797 - 1861) .

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- - - To join me on facebook, click the image !

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. bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government and Administration .

. kido 木戸 The Gates of Edo .

. - Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .


[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]
- - - - - #edosankinkotai #sankinkotai #ichiro #onoderaichiro #daimyogyoretsu #edobakufu - - - -
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12/21/2015

Bakufu Edo Government

[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
. Edo Bakufu - articles .
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Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government and Administration
Tokugawa bakufu 徳川幕府 Tokugawa Government




- quote
The Tokugawa shogunate, also known as the
Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) and
the Edo bakufu (江戸幕府), was the last feudal Japanese military government which existed between 1603 and 1867.
The heads of government were the shoguns, and each was a member of the Tokugawa clan. The Tokugawa shogunate ruled from Edo Castle and the years of the shogunate became known as the Edo period. This time is also called the Tokugawa period or pre-modern (Kinsei (近世)).

The bakuhan taisei (幕藩体制) was the feudal political system in the Edo period of Japan. Baku, or "tent," is an abbreviation of bakufu, meaning "military government" — that is, the shogunate. The han were the domains headed by daimyo.

1 History
2 Government
2.1 Shogunate and domains
2.2 Shogun and the Emperor
2.3 Shogun and foreign trade
2.4 Shogun and Christianity

3 Institutions of the shogunate
3.1 Rōjū and wakadoshiyori (roojuu, roju 老中)
3.2 Ōmetsuke and metsuke (oometsuke 大目付)
3.3 San-bugyō (san bugyoo) - three administrators
3.4 Tenryō, gundai and daikan (Tenryo 天領)
3.5 Gaikoku bugyō (gaikoku bugyoo)

4 Late Tokugawa Shogunate (1853–1867)
5 List of the Tokugawa shoguns
- source : wikipedia

karoo 家老 Karo, chief retainer
He stayed at the domain and looked after the regional affairs on behalf of the Daimyo.

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- - - - - keywords including BAKU 幕 - - - - -

Bakuchoo Sensoo 幕長戦争 Bakucho Senso war
between the Bakufu and the 長州 Choshu Domain
Chōshū Rebellion
also called 長州征討 Choshu Seito, 長州征伐, 長州出兵, 長州戦争
In the Kinmon Incident on 20 August 1864, troops from Chōshū Domain attempted to take control of Kyoto and the Imperial Palace in order to pursue the objective of Sonnō Jōi. This also led to a punitive expedition by the Tokugawa government, the First Chōshū expedition (長州征討).
第一次長州征討 First Chōshū expedition
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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幕府放鷹制度 rules about takagari 鷹狩り hawk hunting, falconry (BF)
. takagari 鷹狩 hunting with hawks and falcons .

bakufu kansen 幕府艦船 Bakufu ships (BF)
bakufu kansenn 幕府官船

. bakufu goyootashi 幕府御用達 craftsmen working for the Bakufu government .

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. bakuhan taisei 幕藩体制 Bakuhan system .

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Bakumatsu 幕末 end period of the Bakufu (1853 - 1867)

. Bakumatsu 幕末 写真 photo collection .

. Bakumatsu aera 幕末の人  people visiting Japan (1853 - 1867) .

幕末のジャーナリズムー Bakumatsu Jurnalism
. kawaraban 瓦版 Edo newspaper, handbill, broadside .

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. bakuryoo 幕領 Bakuryo government land, bakufu-owned land, .
bakufu chokkatsu chi 政府直轄地 / bakufu chokkatsu ryoo 幕府直轄領
shogun's direct holdings, personal land- holdings, personal fief of the Tokugawa
tenryoo, tenryō 天領 Tenryo Government Land "Land of Heaven"


. mizubugyoo, mizu bugyō 水奉行 Waterworks administrator .

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A Shogun (将軍 Shōgun) "general", lit. "military commander"
was a hereditary military dictator in Japan during the period from 1192 to 1867, with some caveats. In this period, the shoguns were the de facto rulers of the country, although nominally they were appointed by the Emperor as a formality. The Shogun held almost absolute power over territories through military means, in contrast to the concept of a colonial governor in Western culture who was appointed by a king.
Sei-i Taishōgun (征夷大将軍, "Commander-in-Chief of the Expeditionary Force Against the Barbarians"
..... in reality shōguns dictated orders to everyone including the reigning Emperor.
Kamakura shogunate (1192–1333)
Ashikaga shogunate (1336–1573)
Tokugawa shogunate (1603–1868)

- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

shoogun senge  将軍宣下 appointment to shogun
imperial authorization for shogunal investiture

江戸幕府の征夷大将軍‎ The Tokugawa Shoguns

Tokugawa Ieyasu 徳川家康 (1543–1616) - the first Shogun
..... He received the title sei-i taishōgun in 1603
Tokugawa Hidetada 徳川秀忠 (1579–1632)
Tokugawa Iemitsu 徳川家光 (1604–1651)
Tokugawa Ietsuna 徳川家綱 (1641–1680)
Tokugawa Tsunayoshi 徳川綱吉 (1646–1709)

Tokugawa Ienobu 徳川家宣 (1662–1712)
Tokugawa Ietsugu 徳川家継 (1709–1716)
Tokugawa Yoshimune 徳川吉宗 (1684–1751)
Tokugawa Ieshige 徳川家重 (1712–1761)
Tokugawa Ieharu 徳川家治 (1737–1786)

Tokugawa Ienari 徳川家斉 (1793–1853)
Tokugawa Ieyoshi 徳川家慶 (1793-1853)
Tokugawa Iesada 徳川家定 (1824–1858)
Tokugawa Iemochi 徳川家茂 (1846–1866)
Tokugawa Yoshinobu 徳川慶喜 (1837–1913) - the last Shogun

Tokugawa Tsunenari 徳川恆孝 (1940 - ) the 18th generation
His son, Tokugawa Iehiro , is a University of Michigan-educated translator.

- Tokugawa Branch Families
Tokugawa Mitsukuni of the Mito domain
Tokugawa Nariaki of the Mito domain
Tokugawa Mochiharu of the Hitotsubashi branch
Tokugawa Munetake of the Tayasu branch.

- - - - - The Matsudaira clan (松平氏 Matsudaira-shi)
Matsudaira Motoyasu changed his name to Tokugawa Ieyasu
Other branches were formed in the decades after Ieyasu, which bore the Matsudaira surname. Some of those branches were also of daimyo status.
Matsudaira Katamori of the Aizu branch.
Matsudaira Sadanobu, of Shirakawa
- - - - - 4 Key genealogies
4.1 Main line (Tokugawa shogun)
4.2 Hoshina-Matsudaira clan (Aizu)
4.3 Yūki-Matsudaira clan (Echizen) - Fukui Domain and Tsuyama Domain
4.4 Ochi-Matsudaira clan (Hamada)
4.5 Hisamatsu-Matsudaira clan (Kuwana)
4.6 Ogyū-Matsudaira clan (Okutono)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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tairoo, tairō 大老 Tairo "Great Elder" - chief councillor
roughly comparable to the office of prime minister.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


- quote -
A COMPLICATED PATCHWORK
The system for maintaining law and order during the Edo period differed fundamentally from our modern system in that law enforcement and criminal justice were carried out by the same organs. That is to say, one agency or office carried out the functions that are today performed separately by police, prosecutors, and the courts. This means that the administrative and judicial functions of government were merged rather than deliberately separated as they are in modern democratic states.

Although the Tokugawa shogunate held sway over the daimyô (lords) of all the country’s domains, the administration of each of these domains was left to the individual daimyô; in principle, the shogunate administered only its own domains. However, since the administrative apparatus of each domain, including law enforcement and criminal justice, closely resembled the system established by the shogunate, an examination of the latter system should be sufficient to provide an overview of law enforcement in the Edo period.

The top administrative post under the shôgun was that of rôjû, or senior councillors. (At times a tairô, or chief councillor, was appointed as a superior to the rôjû, but this was not a permanent post.) Typically, the shogunate appointed four or five rôjû from among the fudai daimyô, lords of the domains that Ieyasu, the first Tokugawa shôgun, had originally granted to his loyal vassals in the early seventeenth century. The rôjû generally took turns managing the shogunate’s administrative affairs according to a monthly rotation system, although they came together to confer on matters of importance. Ranking just below the rôjû were the wakadoshiyori, or junior councillors. They were also chosen from among the fudai daimyô and likewise served according to a monthly rotation. Since the rôjû and wakadoshiyori together made up the top administrative organ of the Tokugawa government, they were inevitably involved in matters pertaining to law enforcement and criminal justice, whether directly or indirectly.

Next in importance in the central administrative apparatus were the metsuke (inspectors) and ômetsuke (inspectors general), whose main job was to monitor and control the activities of the ruling warrior class. The ômetsuke, reporting directly to the rôjû, monitored the daimyô, while the metsuke, who were under the supervision of the wakadoshiyori, focused on the shôgun’s direct retainers—the hatamoto, or bannermen, and the gokenin, or housemen. Both were selected from among the hatamoto. With its reliance on peer monitoring, the metsuke system might be compared to the military police of a modern army or the internal affairs bureau of a police department.

The highest offices with direct police and judicial authority were the three bugyô, or commissioners, who reported to the rôjû. While many of the positions within the vast shogunal bureaucracy had originated as military posts in the era of civil unrest prior to the Edo period, the posts of the three bugyô were created after the shogunate was established in Edo, and they had a distinctly civilian flavor.

The first and highest-ranking of the three was the jisha bugyô (commissioner of temples and shrines), who had authority over the lands of all the temples and shrines in the country, the priests and monks attached to those institutions, and the people living within their precincts. In addition to wielding general administrative authority over these lands and people, the jisha bugyô also adjudicated civil suits, investigated crimes, and tried suspected criminals associated with the temples and shrines.

The central job of the kanjô bugyô (commissioner of accounts) was fiscal management, but the holder of this post also wielded police authority with regard to serious crimes carried out within most of the shogunate’s direct holdings. This is because the authority of the gundai or daikan who directly governed those areas (the name depended on the size of the holding) extended only to the collection of taxes from local farmers and the prosecution and adjudication of civil cases and certain minor criminal cases; in all other criminal cases, the accused, together with the record of the preliminary investigation, was sent to the higher court in Edo, namely the kanjô bugyô. Since the kanjô bugyô thus combined the authority of a finance minister and a chief justice, only the most capable people could fill the post, and they were kept very busy. Four people ordinarily filled it on a monthly rotating basis.
- source : japanecho.com/sum/2004 -

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. nengoo, nengō 年号 Nengo, "year name", era name .


. Edo goyaku 五役(ごやく) the five official workers of Edo .
御駕籠之者(おかごのもの)okagonomono, o-kago no mono
御中間(おちゅうげん)ochuugen, o-chugen
御小人(おこびと)okobito, o-kobito
黒鍬之者(くろくわのもの)kurokuwa no mono
御掃除之者(おそうじのもの)gosooji no mono, go soji no mono

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rusui, rusui-yaku, rusuiyaku 留守居役 caretaker

- quote -
Rusui yaku were samurai officials in the service of Edo period domains, who oversaw the administration of the domain's mansions in Edo or other cities in the lord's absence. They served an extremely important role as the domain's representative in the city, as administrators and intermediaries, facilitating the domain's involvement in political and economic matters in the major metropolises.
The responsibilities of a rusuiyaku
were diverse and extensive, including maintaining the domain's mansion and preparing it for the arrival and residence of the lord or other members of his household; communicating on behalf of the domain with the shogunate and other official institutions, including at times filing formal inquiries or complaints with the shogunate; and communicating with the rusuiyaku of other domains, as intermediaries in arranging various political, personal, or economic matters between domains; among many other activities.
- source : wiki.samurai-archives.com... -


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- - - - - Alphabetical Index of Keywords 用語解説 - - - - -

- AAA - / - BBB - / - CCC - / - DDD - / - EEE -

- FFF - / - GGG - / - HHH - / - I I I - / - JJJ -

- KK KK - / - LLL - / - MMM - / - NNN - / - OOO -

- PPP - / - QQQ - / - RRR - / - SSS - / - TTT -

- UUU - / - VVV - / - WWW - / - XXX - / - YYY - / - ZZZ -


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江戸幕府大事典 Edo Bakufu Daijiten Dictionary
by 大石学 Oishi Manabu

将軍・老中・火付盗賊改・畳奉行・鷹匠、江戸城 ( 門・櫓・堀) ・陣屋・奉行所、参勤交代・幕府の儀式...。
家康から慶喜まで、265年にわたり日本を治めた江戸幕府。最新の成果で描く概論と、職制・陣屋・儀式などの用語解説で、幕府の基礎情報を集成。役職存在期間一覧、索引などの付録も充実した.
年中行事 - 官僚制 - 建築物
役職については、支配・役高・詰間などの基本情報から職務内容・改廃・主要人物なども解説。施設(陣屋・奉行所・役所・牢屋・刑場など)については、現在地・構造のほか、設置から廃止までの沿革も詳述する
(江戸幕府大辞典)

- quote -
- 内容説明
家康から慶喜まで、265年にわたり日本を治めた江戸幕府。最新の研究成果で描く概論と、将軍から牢屋下男にいたる多様な職制や江戸城の諸施設、陣屋、制度・儀式などの用語解説により、幕府の基礎情報を集成する画期的な大事典。役職存在期間一覧・幕府年中行事一覧・江戸城間取り図などの便利な付録・索引も充実した〈江戸幕府〉百科の決定版。

【特色】
●江戸幕府のすべてがわかる
総項目約1800。初期から幕末まで、265年にわたる江戸幕府の政治・制度を理解するための基礎情報を1冊に集成

●江戸幕府をより深く知るための工夫をこらした構成
概説で江戸幕府を総合的に論じ、用語解説で具体的な事項を解説。さらに付録で江戸時代の役職の存在期間や年中行事、幕府施設の所在地などを一覧化する

●最新の研究成果を反映
官僚制・儀式研究・公文書論などの新たな視点も取り入れ、最新の研究成果を反映。施設については、考古学・建築学など周辺分野の成果もふまえて解説する

●江戸幕府の役職・施設を網羅
役職については、支配・役高・詰間などの基本情報から職務内容・改廃・主要人物なども解説。施設(陣屋・奉行所・役所・牢屋・刑場など)については、現在地・構造のほか、設置から廃止までの沿革も詳述する

●江戸城の全貌がよみがえる
城内の各部屋の名称や場所・用途をくわしく解説。そのほか、門・櫓・堀も網羅的に取り上げ、江戸城の全貌を再現する

●充実した巻末付録と、検索が便利な索引を付載
主な付録
*職制図(江戸時代後期と幕末を含む)
*役職存在期間一覧
(江戸時代に刊行された武鑑などから、役職が史料にみえる時期を一覧化)
*幕府年中行事一覧
(御礼惣登城の儀・八朔など幕府の行事から花見・七夕など大奥の行事も一覧)
*江戸・大坂・京都の地図
(町奉行所など、江戸・大坂・京都それぞれの町中の幕府関連施設の位置を図示)
*代官所・遠国奉行所の地図
(全国の陣屋・遠国奉行所の位置を図示)
*江戸城の御殿図
- reference source : yoshikawa-k.co.jp... -


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. Bakufu Meeting with PowerPoint .

. ninsoku yoseba 人足寄場 rehabilitation prison .
Hasegawa Heizô 長谷川平蔵 and
Law Enforcement in the Edo Period

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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

葛がくれ幕府御用の銅の道
kuzugakure bakufu goyoo no doo no michi

hidden in Kuzu
the copper road
of the Bakufu


品川鈴子 Shinagawa Suzuko



. doozan 銅山 Dozan copper mines in Japan .
Besshi copper mine 別子銅山 - Ehime
Ashio copper mine 足尾銅山 - Tochigi

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浜木綿の奔放に裂け幕府跡
hamayuu no honbo ni sake bakufu ato

北見さとる Kitami Satoru

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. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .


. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

. samurai, warriour, tsuwamono, bushi 侍, 兵、武士、兵士 .


[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]
- - - - - #edobakufu #bakufu - - - -
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12/29/2015

Tenryo Government Land

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
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tenryoo, tenryō 天領 Tenryo Government Land "Land of Heaven"
bakuryoo 幕領 Bakuryo government land, bakufu-owned land
bakufu chokkatsu chi 政府直轄地 / bakufu chokkatsu ryoo 幕府直轄領

shogun's direct holdings, personal land- holdings, personal fief of the Tokugawa



- quote
Tenryō, gundai and daikan
The shogun directly held lands in various parts of Japan. These were known as bakufu chokkatsuchi; since the Meiji period, the term tenryō has become synonymous.
In addition to the territory that Ieyasu held prior to the Battle of Sekigahara, this included lands he gained in that battle and lands gained as a result of the Summer and Winter Sieges of Osaka. By the end of the seventeenth century, the shogun's landholdings had reached four million koku. Such major cities as Nagasaki and Osaka, and mines, including the Sado gold mine, also fell into this category.
- source : wikipedia

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. Ashio doozan 足尾銅山 Ashio Dozan, Ashio Copper Mine . - Tochigi
and Besshi doozan 別子銅山 Bessgu copper mine, Ehime

. Gyotoku enden 行徳塩田 Gyotoku salt fields in Chiba .

. Hita 日田市 - Bungo no Kuni Hita 豊後国日田 . Oita
Hita Tenryo Matsuri 日田天領まつり Hita Tenryo Festival
Tenryo Hita Hina Doll Festival 天領日田雛まつり



. Iwami Ginzan 石見銀山 Silver Mines at Iwami, Shimane .

. Sadokoku Sado koku 佐渡国 Sado Province .


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信濃の天領陣屋 Jinya Government Building in Shinano
江戸幕府の天領 - 村上直
天領(江戸幕府直轄領)研究の第一人者である村上直氏が、全国的な観点から天領を捉える。天領の設定と存在意義、天領の開発と代官頭、関東と畿内の天領、天領の地域的分布、天領と代官支配、幕府の職掌分化と代官、代官と遠国奉行などについて解説する。
- source : town.iijima.lg.jp -


- quote -
天領という用語は、
明治初期に旧幕府直轄領が天皇の御料(直轄領)になったときに天領と呼ばれるようになったため、さかのぼって幕府時代のものも天領と通称するようになったもので、江戸時代に使われていた用語ではない。江戸時代には支配所 shihaisho(しはいしょ、しはいじょ)、支配処(しはいしょ、しはいじょ)と呼んだ。また通称で御料 goryo(ごりょう)、御料所 goryosho(ごりょうしょ、ごりょうじょ)、御料地 goryochi(ごりょうち)、公儀御料 kogi oryo (こうぎごりょう)などとも呼ばれた。
なお、現在では幕府領、幕領という語が用いられることもあり、その中に旗本知行地(約300万石)も含めて呼ばれることもある。
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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CLICK for more types of Sake and even Tenryo water!

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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

天領の空かがやかす雉の綺羅
tenryo no sora kagayakasu kiji no kira

the glittering
of the pheasant brings a shine
to the "Land of Heaven "

Tr. Gabi Greve

Endoo Masako 遠藤正子 Endo Masako

. WKD : kiji 雉 pheasant .
- - kigo for all spring - -


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:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]- - - - - #edobakufu #tenryo #bakuryo - - - -
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12/27/2015

Sumitomo family business

[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .
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The Sumitomo family 住友家
and doozan 銅山 Dozan copper mines in Japan


- quote
The Sumitomo Group, of which Sumitomo Corporation is a key member, dates to the 17th century establishment of a book and medicine shop in Kyoto by 小次郎政友 Masatomo Sumitomo. Sumitomo's brother-in-law 蘇我理右衛門 Riemon Soga developed a technology to extract silver from copper, and Soga's son (who married Sumitomo's daughter) 住友友以 Tomomochi Sumitomo expanded this smelting business to Osaka.
From this start, the Sumitomo family expanded its business into copper mining (the Besshi copper mine), followed by textiles, sugar and medicine trading.
Its 家号 Yago house name was 泉屋 Izumiya.

The Sumitomo family was close to the Tokugawa shogunate throughout the Edo period. During the 1860s, this relationship became a liability for the firm as the Tokugawa clan warred with rivals in western Japan. Following the Tokugawas' defeat, Sumitomo was almost ruined and under pressure to sell the Besshi mine, which by that point was nearly unworkable. However, Sumitomo kept the mine and improved its output through adoption of new Western techniques.
During the rapid westernization of Japan in ensuing decades, Sumitomo started various new trading, manufacturing and financing businesses, becoming one of the major zaibatsu of early 20th century Japan.

Sumitomo Corporation (住友商事株式会社 Sumitomo Shōji Kabushiki-gaisha)
is one of the largest worldwide Sogo shosha general trading companies, and is a diversified corporation. The company was incorporated in 1919, it is a member company of the Sumitomo Group.
- source : wikipedia




Sumitomo Corporation
- source : sumitomocorp.co.jp -

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- quote -
住友家の起源 - 始祖・家祖・業祖
住友の姓は、戦国の末、もともと先祖に順美平内友定という人物がおり、桓武天皇の曾孫・高望王の二十二代目にその子・小太郎(忠重)が父の姓と名をとって「住友」の姓を称して室町将軍に仕えて、備中守に任じられたのに始まる。

平家の末裔である戦国武士だった住友家の先祖は、国取り物語の戦国時代を有為転変の歴史を生きる。室町将軍に仕えた「始祖」・住友忠重の子・頼定は、足利義晴に仕え、頼定の子・定信は刑部承と称した。そして、定信の子・定重は、今川義忠(今川義元の祖父)に仕えるが、定重の子・信定の代になり、今川氏が滅んでしまったので、摂津の中川清秀に仕え、入江土佐守と称し、中川十六騎の一人として知られたが、尾崎の陣で戦死してしまう。また入江土佐守(信定)の子・政俊は越前国の柴田氏に仕え、若狭守と称し越前丸岡城にあったが、柴田勝家と共に北庄城で滅んでしまった。政俊の子・長行は、徳川家康の子で結城家へ養子入りした結城秀康に用いられるが、住友家の武家の歴史はここまでである。戦国の習いとはいえ、武家社会の興亡の激しさと無情を感じたのか長行は、自分の子供たちに武家の世界から足を洗わせた。
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -



新居浜市角野新田町3丁目13番

- quote -
The Besshi copper mine (別子銅山 Besshi dōzan) was a rich source of copper in Niihama, Ehime Prefecture.
The deposits were discovered in 1690, and mining began in the following year. From then until the closing of the mine in 1973, Besshi produced about 700,000 tons of copper, and contributed to Japan's trade and modernization. The Sumitomo family managed the mine, which helped build the Sumitomo zaibatsu. The Dōzan River was named after the copper mine.
The Minetopia Besshi theme park uses some of the mine's facilities.
- source : wikipedia -

During the Edo period, the copper had to be carried from the high mountain down to the beach at Niihama. Male porters with 45 kg in a backpack and female porters with 30 kg had to go down a very small and dangerous mountain path of about 12 kilometers with this load.
In a recent re-creation some male porters made it for just a few meters and than had to give up because it was too dangerous.
Hirose Saihei 広瀬宰平 (1828 - 1914)
was the first 初代住友総理人 Director-General.
- source : Rules Governing the House of Sumitomo -
At the beginning of the Meiji period, modern equipment was introduced by Hirose as much as possible, with mountain railroads and ropeways to carry the burden.
But the immense smoke produced during the melting process caused damage to the local crops 煙害問題.
Iba Teigo 伊庭貞剛 (1847 - 1926) - second director genera.
Even a re-location of the ovens and a huge chimney on an uninhabited island off Niihama 四阪島 could not solve the problem and only caused further damage to a large part of the surrounding farms. Finally special filters were developed to contain the poisonous smoke.
The history of Besshi Copper Mine was taken up in a very instructive TV infotainment in january 2016.


Hyakunen no Kei, Watashi ni Ari
Shirarezaru Meiji SangyouIshin Leader Den
Cast: Enoki Takaaki, Ishiguro Ken,
Asari Yosuke, Asaka Mayumi, Hiki Rie, Yamada Kinuo, Patrick Lample
Synopsis:
Sumitomo’s first director general was Hirose Saihei (Enoki Takaaki) who grew up at the Besshi Copper Mine run by the house of Sumitomo in Shiga Prefecture from young. He convinces Sumitomo to embark on modernising its mine “for the sake of Japan 100 years into the future”.
Persistent and particular about modernisation at the hands of the Japanese, he was an active proponent of transferring Western technology. He made his subordinate Shiono Monnosuke (Asari Yosuke) study in France and learn mining technology. This is how the copper mine was rapidly modernised.
But on the other hand, the smoke emissions from smelting mill caused environmental problems. It was Hirose’s nephew Iba Teigo (Ishiguro Ken) who volunteered to tackle this difficult situation. In order to solve the root of the problem, Iba proposed an incredible plan to move the modern smelting mill, which was completed less than 10 years ago, to another place just like the current. A furious Hirose was absolutely against this reckless plan. But Iba talked him into it and even carried out a huge reforestation plan to restore nature at the mountains of Besshi that had been devastated by mining and smelting that spanned 200 years. Iba would go on to become Sumitomo’s second director general.
How far did the reforms of Hirose and Iba get?
- source : jdramas.wordpress.com -

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葛がくれ幕府御用の銅の道
kuzugakure bakufu goyoo no doo no michi

hidden in Kuzu
the copper road
of the Bakufu


品川鈴子 Shinagawa Suzuko



別子銅山のぼれば桔梗また桔梗
Besshi doozan noboreba kikyoo mata kikyoo

Besshi copper mine
climbing up there are Chinese bellflowers
and more bellflowers


津村芳水 Tsumura Hosui


. kikyoo 桔梗 Chinese bellflower - Platycodon grandiflorus. .
- kigo for autumn -

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草笛に吹くよ別子の銅山節
kusabue ni fuku yo Besshi no doozanbushi

blowing it
on a reed flute -
the Besshi Copper Mine Song


品川鈴子 Shinagawa Suzuko




別子銅山せっとう節 Besshi Dozan Settobushi
江戸時代から鉱山へ出稼ぎにきた坑夫たちによって歌い継がれた作業歌とされています。
女は絣の着物にタスキがけ、男は坑夫のいでたちで登場します。
- reference -


. kusabue 草笛 "reed flute" .
- kigo for summer -

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- - - - - There was one more important copper mine in Japan.

Ashio doozan 足尾銅山 Ashio Dozan, Ashio Copper Mine

- quote -
The Ashio Copper Mine, Ashio, Tochigi prefecture, became very significant from the end of the 19th century to the mid-20th century. It was the site of major pollution in the 1880s and the scene of the 1907 miners riots.



The Ashio mine has been in existence at least since 1600 when it belonged to the Tokugawa shogunate. At that time it produced about 1,500 tons annually, although this declined when the mine was closed in 1800. It became privately owned in 1871 following the industrialisation initiated by the Meiji restoration. By 1877 it became the property of Furukawa Ichibei, and by the 1880s production had increased dramatically, reaching 4,090 tons by 1885, 78 per cent of the total output of the Furukawa mines and 39 percent of Japan's copper production.

The Ashio mine was shut down in 1973.
The Ashio Copper Mine Incident is the name given to the environmental disaster that occurred as a result of the Ashio mining operations in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


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. Kaido 街道 the old highways .

akagane kaido あかがね街道 / 銅街道 copper highway
doozan kaido 銅山街道 copper mine highway

Connecting the Ashio copper mine with the 前島河岸 Maejima coast.
About 45 km long with a difference in hight of about 600 m.


- CLICK for more photos !

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製錬のにほひかそかに夏山路
seiren no nioi kasoka ni natsu yamaji

the faint smell
of metal smelting
on the summer mountain road


上村占魚 Uemura Sengyo (下野足尾銅山)

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足尾銅山枯葉に重さありにけり
Ashio doozan kareha ni omosa ari ni keri

Ashio copper mine
and the withered leaves
feel so heavy . . .


渡辺恭子 Watanabe Kyoko




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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

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Akita 阿仁合村 Aniai - 阿仁銅山 Ani copper mine

gingitsune 銀狐 the silver fox
Once upon a time a rich merchant from Osaka found a silver fox in his garden, but when he woke up from this dream, his wife had turned into a silver fox. So the wife-fox left her husband, but he came after her, travelling around in Japan. One day his wife-fox appeared again and told him, if he climbed up this mountain he would find precious metal.
This is the beginning of the Ani doozan 阿仁銅山 copper mines in Ani .

阿仁鉱山 Ani Kozan mines for copper, gold and silver.
Copper was first found in 1716. Shut down in 1987.



- quote -
Originally developed as a gold mine in 1300s, Ani mine became one of the top three copper mines in Japan with the highest record copper production in 1716 when operated by the Satake clan.
German mining engineers were invited in the 19th century to further improve its production. Ijinkan is a western building that used to accommodate such engineers, including Adolf Meckel, and was later used as a guesthouse after they left. The building was designated a national cultural asset in 1990.
- source : akita-ecotown.com -

. Kaido 街道 Highways of Japan .

Ani Kaidoo 阿仁街道 Ani Kaido Highway

From 角館 Kakunodate via the pass 大覚野峠 Daigakuno Toge to 阿仁銀山町 Ani Ginzan town, then to 米内沢 Yonaizawa and 小繁 Kotsunagi.
The part until the pass is also called
大覚野街道 Daigakuno Kaido
- reference and photos : akitabi.com/ani... -

Connecting to
角館街道 Kakudate Kaido, 刈和野街道 Kariwano Kaido, 生保内街道 Obonai Kaido and 五城目街道 Gojome Kaido.


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Akita 土川 Tsuchikawa - 杉沢銅山 Sugisawa copper mine

katame no sakana 片目の魚 fish with one eye
The stonefish (kajika 鰍) from Tsuchikawa village living below the copper mine lost one eye when the paths were hit by a landslide and the blood of the killed workers flowed down the river, filling one of the fish's eyes.

This mine for gold, silver, copper, lead and zinc in the 大仙市 Daisen town district was closed in 1972.

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Gifu 洞戸村 Horado

hitokui Ebisu 人喰いエビス man-eating Ebisu
This man-eating Ebisu was hit by an arrow from 正之御前 Masa no Gozen at 弓保木, the blood of Ebisu flew down the river at 赤谷 Akadani and he finally fled to 恵比寿山 Mount Ebisusan to the copper mine grotto 銅山岩屋 (also called Ebisugura エベスグラ.)

There is a small shrine in honor of Masa no Gozen 正の御前, 正之御前社.
It is about 540 meter high on Ebisu mountain.



In the shrine is a deity and two bronze mirrors.
A warrior from Echizen who had lost his head in battle and his retainer Masa no Gozen burried it on the mountain.
- source : sankyoharinko -

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- source : nichibun yokai database -

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. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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