Showing posts sorted by relevance for query #edobakufu. Sort by date Show all posts
Showing posts sorted by relevance for query #edobakufu. Sort by date Show all posts

1/05/2016

taika great fires

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
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taika 江戸の大火 Edo no Taika "Great Fires of Edo"



During the Edo period, when people lived closely in wooden homes and used open fire for cooking, fires were especially terrible.
Fire and fighting are the flowers of Edo (kaji to kenka wa Edo no hana)
is an old proverb of these dangerous times.

hatsu kaji 初火事 first fire
The first fire of the new year is often seen as a bringer of bad luck, if it happens during the first three days of the New Year.

Matsuo Basho's first "Basho Hut (Bashoo An 芭蕉庵" burned down, on January 25, 1683.

. WKD : kaji 火事 fire .
hi no ban 火の番 on the lookout for fire
machibikeshi, machi hikeshi 町火消し local fire brigade
hi no yoojin 火の用心 fire prevention goods

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江戸の火事と火消 / 山本純美

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Fires in Edo
were fires which occurred in Edo (江戸), now Tokyo, during the Edo period. The city of Edo was characterized by frequent great fires as the saying "Fires and quarrels are the flowers of Edo" goes.
Even in the modern days, the old Edo was still remembered as the "City of Fires" (「火災都市」). The city was something of a rarity in the world, as vast urban areas of Edo were repeatedly leveled by fire. The great fires of Edo were compared to the Chinese gods of fire Shukuyū (祝融) and Kairoku (回禄), and also humorously described as "autumn leaves".
..... During the 267 years between 1601 (Keichō 6), the year after the Battle of Sekigahara (関ヶ原の戦い), and 1867 (Keiō 3), the year of Taisei Hōkan (大政奉還, literally "return of sovereignty"), Edo was struck by 49 great fires.
..... The strong winter monsoon from the north was a meteorological condition unique to Edo. It contributed to many winter and spring fires that occurred in dry weather brought about by prevailing northwest and north winds.....

December 26, 1601 / 6 Keicho/11
March 10or11, 1641 / 8 Kan-ei/1/29or30 - Oke-machi Fire 桶町火事
March 2–3, 1657 / 3 Meireki/1/18-19 - Great Fire of Meireki 明暦の大火
January 25, 1683 / 2 Tenna/12/28 - Great Fire of Tenna 天和の大火
October 9, 1698 / 11 Genroku/9/6 - Chokugaku Fire 勅額火事
December 25, 1704 / 16 Genroku/11/29 - Mito-sama Fire 水戸様火事
March 14, 1745 / 2 Enkyo/2/12 - Rokudō Fire 六道火事
March 22, 1760 / 10 Horeki/2/6 - Hōreki Fire 宝暦の大火
April 1, 1772 / 9 Meiwa/2/29 - Great Fire of Meiwa 明和の大火
April 22, 1806 / 3 Bunka/3/4 - Great Fire of Bunka 文化の大火
April 24, 1829 / 12 Bunsei/3/21 - Great Fire of Bunsei 文政の大火 / 江戸神田佐久間町の大火 Great fire in Sakumacho 1829
. March 16, 1834 / 5 Tempo/2/7 - Kōgo Fire 甲午火事 - and Sakuma Fire .
March 2, 1845 / 2 Koka/1/24 - Aoyama Fire 青山火事
November 11, 1855 / 2 Ansei/10/2 - Earthquake Fire 地震火事


Tokugawa shogunate's fire prevention measures
Firefighting organizations

- machibikeshi (町火消, chōnin firefighters).
- buke hikeshi (武家火消 samurai firefighters)
-- daimyō hikeshi (大名火消, daimyo firefighters) and
-- jōbikeshi (定火消, hatamoto firefighters).

Anti-arson measures
- Hitsuke tōzoku aratame 火付盗賊改方

Urban planning - fire barrier zones

- Hiyokechi 火除地 and hirokōji 広小路
- Fire-resistant and fireproof structures
- Prohibitions and fire alert orders
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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Meireki no Taika 明暦の大火 Great Fire of Meireki
March 2–3, 1657 / 3 Meireki/1/18-19
... also known as the Furisode Fire, destroyed 60–70% of the Japanese capital city of Edo (now Tokyo) on March 2, 1657, the third year of the Meireki Imperial era. The fire lasted for three days, and is estimated to have claimed over 100,000 lives.
Legend
The fire was said to have been started accidentally by a priest who was cremating an allegedly cursed kimono. The kimono had been owned in succession by three teenage girls who all died before ever being able to wear it. When the garment was being burned, a large gust of wind fanned the flames causing the wooden temple to ignite.
. . . . . On the 24th day of the new year, six days after the fire began, monks and others began to transport the bodies of those killed down the Sumida River to Honjo, Sumida,_Tokyo, a community on the eastern side of the river. There, pits were dug and the bodies buried; the Ekō-in (Hall of Prayer for the Dead) was then built on the site.
. . . . . Under the guidance of Rōjū Matsudaira Nobutsuna 松平信綱, streets were widened and some districts replanned and reorganized
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Matsudaira Nobutsuna 松平信綱 (1596 – 1662)
was a Japanese daimyo of the early Edo period, who ruled the Kawagoe Domain. First serving Tokugawa Iemitsu as a page, Nobutsuna was renowned for his sagacity. He was named a rōjū in 1633. Nobutsuna led the shogunal forces to their final victory over the rebellion at Shimabara. His court title was Izu no Kami, which was the origin of his nickname, "Izu the Wise" (知恵伊豆 Chie Izu).
. . . . . In his later years, he joined senior Tokugawa officials such as Hoshina Masayuki in supporting the underaged 4th shogun, Ietsuna. With Hoshina he planned how to rebuilt the town of Edo after the great fire.
. . . . . Shogun Ietsuna calls him "as ugly as a toad".
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


The bridge 両国橋 Ryogokubashi across the 隅田川 Sumida river was constructed on request of Hoshina and Matsudaira to provide an escape road for the townspeople. The land on the other side soon thrived as a popular amusement district, as did many other of the newly built hirokooji 広小路 Hirokoji, Wide Roads, which provided space for yatai 屋台 stalls and evening business.

. Ryoogokubashi 両国橋  Ryogokubashi bridge .


The 天守閣 tenshukaku tower of Edo castle was also lost during the Meireki fire.
It was not rebuilt any more, to express the lasting peace of the Tokugawa bakufu and the money was spent to rebuilt the town. The gates at the other bridges of Edo were also kept open for free transportation and trade in Edo, thus improving the life of the citizens. This also expressed the now lasting peace of the Bakufu, showing that a castle for war defense was no longer needed.

. Edo joo 江戸城 Edojo, Edo Castle .

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October 9, 1698 - Chokugaku Fire 勅額火事
Also called 元禄江戸大火 or 中堂火事
It started from Kyobashi and by a southern wind spread fast. Soon it came down from Surugadai to Shitaya 下谷、Kanda Myojin Shita 神田明神下 and 湯島天神下 Yushima Tenjin Shita.
Then to 下谷池之端 Shitaya Ikenohata and on to Asakusa. It was stopped by a great rain after 22 hours.
More than 3000 dead.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. Shitaya 下谷 and modern Taitō-ku 台東区 Taito Ward .

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April 22, 1806 - Great Fire of Bunka 文化の大火
文化3年3月4日
Also called 丙寅の大火 or 車町火事 or 牛町火事.
It started in 車町, passed the Kamiyashiki of the Satsuma clan.
It destroyed much of the Ryogoku, Kyobashi and Nihonbashi districts of Edo, and on to Kanda and Asakusa.
Next day came a great rain and the fire extinguished.
More than 1200 dead.

. Kobayashi Issa 小林一茶 and the Shitaya Fire Haiku .
Issa lived in 下谷 Shitaya at that time.

- quote -
Ueno Hirokoji / Shitaya / Yamashita
The area around the present day Ueno Park (the former Kan'ei-ji Temple).
Ueno Hirokoji is the area from the entrance to present day Ueno Park to Matsuzakaya.
After the Great Fire of Meireki (1657), the street width was widened and the area was made into a firebreak. This was a shopping quarter lined with grocery stores, restaurants and other shops along the route of the Onarimichi (a special road used by the imperial family, regents and advisers and the shogun) successive Shoguns throughout history when they went to worship at the Kan'ei-ji Temple.
At the intersection of the present day Chuo St. and Shinobazu St. the Shinobu-gawa River flowed, and there were 3 bridges over it so the area was called Mihashi (three bridges). Matsuzakaya and Mihashi were both pictured in nishiki-e.
Shitaya refers to a section on the east side of Kan'ei-ji Temple (present day Ueno Park), and the name (lower valley) was in reference to Ueno, which was a plateau.
Yamashita (below mountain) refers to being beneath Toeizan. It was located in the area within the present day JR Ueno Station building and the plaza in front of the station. In 1737 it was made into a firebreak after a fire, and became an amusement district with stores and entertainment booths rather than a residential area.
- reference source : ndl.go.jp/landmarks/e/sights -


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Three Great Fires of Edo 江戸の三大大火

Meireki 明暦の大火
Meguro Gyooninzaka 目黒行人坂の大火 Meguro Gyoninzaka (Meiwa no taika)
Hinoe Tora 丙寅の大火
(Bunka no taika)


- source : gakken.co.jp/kagakusouken -


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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

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Tokyo 文京区 Bunkyo Ward

dai naru hi 大なる燈
享保の頃江戸に住んでいたが、その家の向かいにある山に伝通院という寺があった。正月25日の戌刻に寺の辺りから大きな光が出て北や南に歩いた。その後、空に上って星に成り、夜な夜な輝いた。そして3月8日巳刻に、牛込から千住までの大火事が発生し、この寺の庭で非常に多くの人が焼死した。

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Tokyo 中央区 Chuo Ward

ki naru koto 奇なる事 something strange
3月21日の大火の時、看板だけが焼け残った所や、出火元の近くなのに燃え残った小屋があった。

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Tokyo 練馬区 Nerima

kitsune 狐 the fox
There lives an old fox in the temple. When he called out, he warned people of a fire, so three or four times a great fire could be averted. He is therefore called

火消稲荷 Fire-extinguishing Inari
a form of hi no kami inari 火の神稲荷, Inari as a Fire Deity.

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Tokyo 西多摩郡 Nishi-Tama district 檜原村 Hinohara village

akai kami 赤い紙
貧しい身なりの旅人が泊めてくれというのを断ると、旅人は村はずれで赤い紙をヒラヒラと飛ばした。その紙は先程の家の屋根に落ちて、火事になった。何軒も家が焼け、村半分が焼ける大火事になったという。

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Tokyo 品川区 Shinagawa ward

O-Koojin sama お荒神様 Kojin Sama
品川駅前の飲食店街で大火事が起きた。その時、荒神様の厨子を持って屋根に上がり火の方に開いたとたん、風向きが変わり、丁度隣で焼け止まった。

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- source : nichibun yokai database -
5 to explore 火の神稲荷 (01)


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- source : nichibun yokai database -

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. taika 大火と伝説 Legends about big fires in Japan .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]- - - - - #edobakufu #taika #greatfiresinedo #edofires - - - -
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12/29/2015

Tenryo Government Land

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
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tenryoo, tenryō 天領 Tenryo Government Land "Land of Heaven"
bakuryoo 幕領 Bakuryo government land, bakufu-owned land
bakufu chokkatsu chi 政府直轄地 / bakufu chokkatsu ryoo 幕府直轄領

shogun's direct holdings, personal land- holdings, personal fief of the Tokugawa



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Tenryō, gundai and daikan
The shogun directly held lands in various parts of Japan. These were known as bakufu chokkatsuchi; since the Meiji period, the term tenryō has become synonymous.
In addition to the territory that Ieyasu held prior to the Battle of Sekigahara, this included lands he gained in that battle and lands gained as a result of the Summer and Winter Sieges of Osaka. By the end of the seventeenth century, the shogun's landholdings had reached four million koku. Such major cities as Nagasaki and Osaka, and mines, including the Sado gold mine, also fell into this category.
- source : wikipedia

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. Ashio doozan 足尾銅山 Ashio Dozan, Ashio Copper Mine . - Tochigi
and Besshi doozan 別子銅山 Bessgu copper mine, Ehime

. Gyotoku enden 行徳塩田 Gyotoku salt fields in Chiba .

. Hita 日田市 - Bungo no Kuni Hita 豊後国日田 . Oita
Hita Tenryo Matsuri 日田天領まつり Hita Tenryo Festival
Tenryo Hita Hina Doll Festival 天領日田雛まつり



. Iwami Ginzan 石見銀山 Silver Mines at Iwami, Shimane .

. Sadokoku Sado koku 佐渡国 Sado Province .


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信濃の天領陣屋 Jinya Government Building in Shinano
江戸幕府の天領 - 村上直
天領(江戸幕府直轄領)研究の第一人者である村上直氏が、全国的な観点から天領を捉える。天領の設定と存在意義、天領の開発と代官頭、関東と畿内の天領、天領の地域的分布、天領と代官支配、幕府の職掌分化と代官、代官と遠国奉行などについて解説する。
- source : town.iijima.lg.jp -


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天領という用語は、
明治初期に旧幕府直轄領が天皇の御料(直轄領)になったときに天領と呼ばれるようになったため、さかのぼって幕府時代のものも天領と通称するようになったもので、江戸時代に使われていた用語ではない。江戸時代には支配所 shihaisho(しはいしょ、しはいじょ)、支配処(しはいしょ、しはいじょ)と呼んだ。また通称で御料 goryo(ごりょう)、御料所 goryosho(ごりょうしょ、ごりょうじょ)、御料地 goryochi(ごりょうち)、公儀御料 kogi oryo (こうぎごりょう)などとも呼ばれた。
なお、現在では幕府領、幕領という語が用いられることもあり、その中に旗本知行地(約300万石)も含めて呼ばれることもある。
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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CLICK for more types of Sake and even Tenryo water!

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天領の空かがやかす雉の綺羅
tenryo no sora kagayakasu kiji no kira

the glittering
of the pheasant brings a shine
to the "Land of Heaven "

Tr. Gabi Greve

Endoo Masako 遠藤正子 Endo Masako

. WKD : kiji 雉 pheasant .
- - kigo for all spring - -


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. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]- - - - - #edobakufu #tenryo #bakuryo - - - -
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12/28/2015

bakuhan system

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bakuhan 幕藩 Bakuhan feudal system

The bakuhan taisei 幕藩体制 was the feudal political system in the Edo period of Japan.
Baku, or "tent," is an abbreviation of bakufu, meaning "military government" — that is, the shogunate.
The han were the domains headed by daimyo.

. bakufu 幕府 The Edo Government and Administration .



The Tokugawa (or Edo) period brought 250 years of stability to Japan. The political system evolved into what historians call bakuhan, a combination of the terms bakufu and han (domains) to describe the government and society of the period. In the bakuhan, the shogun had national authority and the daimyo had regional authority.
This represented a new unity in the feudal structure, which featured an increasingly large bureaucracy to administer the mixture of centralized and decentralized authorities. The Tokugawa became more powerful during their first century of rule: land redistribution gave them nearly seven million koku, control of the most important cities, and a land assessment system reaping great revenues.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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Tokugawa Political System
The Tokugawa political system was perhaps the most complex feudal system ever developed. It was similar to the European feudal system (pope, emperor or king, feudal barons, and retainers in Europe compared to emperor, the shogun, the daimyo, and samurai retainers in Japan), but it was also very bureaucratic, an attribute not associated with European feudalism.

This political system was called the bakuhan system. Baku comes from bakufu which was the government the Tokugawa leaders used to administer their private affairs inside their own fief. Han means domain and refers to the 250-plus domains that existed throughout the Edo period. Thus, bakuhan refers to the co-existence of the Tokugawa government with separate, independent governments in each of the fiefs. Since each daimyo was a retainer of the shogun, the bakufu or shogunate had some power across all of Japan. This was not a federal system or even a centralized hierarchy of political authorities; rather, it was a system in which two levels of government existed with a high degree of independence.

The Tokugawa shogunate was very much like any domainal government in that it was responsible first for the administration of a limited territory, the fief of the Tokugawa house. As such, it concerned itself with controlling the samurai class, collecting taxes (primarily on agriculture), maintaining civil order, defending the fief, controlling the cities, encouraging commerce and manufacturing which were required by the fief, limiting undesirable types of commerce and so on. In most domains, the scope of government was similar. In fact, as the Edo period wore on, most domains copied the system of the shogunate.

The Tokugawa shogunate also had responsibilities and concerns which went beyond those of ordinary domains; the Tokugawa shoguns were, after all, hegemons presiding over a whole country.

The Tokugawa government alone dealt with the imperial court, the imperial nobility and the emperor himself. The emperor was the source of legitimacy since the office of shogun was an imperial appointment. Furthermore, Confucianism which was the official ideology of the Tokugawa house during the Edo period focused attention on the emperor. Thus, the Tokugawa shogunate established a monopoly on access to the imperial court. As the period wore on, the monopoly was breached, but it is essentially true that the Tokugawa controlled and manipulated the court for its own purposes.

The shogunate held a near monopoly over foreign trade and foreign affairs. The trade monopoly was important because significant profits were available to the Tokugawa alone. Foreign trade was also permitted through Satsuma domain to the Ryukyu kingdom (Okinawa) and through Tsushima domain to Korea, but generally speaking diplomatic matters were closely controlled by the Tokugawa.

Foreign relations were crucial because control of them made a statement to the political public that the Tokugawa house was in control of all aspects of government; it was an additional source of legitimacy. In line with this, the Tokugawa shogunate restricted diplomatic contact by prohibiting any Europeans except the Dutch from coming to Japan after 1639; this was the policy of national seclusion (sakoku). But even seclusion was an exercise of power which impressed observers and encouraged submission.

Perhaps the most important role of the shogunate was control of the domains, the han. This was precisely what had been lacking in the Warring States period, the ability of central authority to enforce peace. During the forty years before the Edo period, the three unifiers, Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu, evolved a system which proved increasingly capable of ensuring the loyalty and obedience of vassals. The Tokugawa shogunate took this previous experience and honed it to perfection.

Elements of this system included a police and spy network which reported any suspicious activity by samurai or daimyo. Daimyo were required to report any proposed marriage alliances between domains to the shogunate for approval. Contact between domains was prohibited to reduce opportunities for plotting against the shogunate. The number of castles, their size and their strength were very strictly limited.

The shogunate could punish daimyo for transgressions in a variety of ways; a domain could be reduced in size, the daimyo could be shifted to an entirely different domain, or, the ultimate sanction, suicide could be demanded, perhaps with the additional punishment of his lineage being reduced in status to a non-daimyo level.

The most important aspect of the system of controlling the han was the sankin-kotai system, or the system of alternate residence in Edo. This grew out of the Warring States period practice of demanding high-ranking hostages from vassals or allies to guarantee good behavior. The founder of the shogunate, Tokugawa Ieyasu, was himself a hostage for nearly 13 years as a young boy.

The Tokugawa, however, formalized the keeping of hostages. They established rules which specified for each daimyo a period of time every year (or two or three) during which the daimyo must live in Edo. The daimyo’s family would have to live in Edo when the daimyo returned to his domain, so that the one stood hostage for the other.

Not only did this provide hostages, but it also placed an economic burden on the daimyo which drained away resources that otherwise might have gone into military preparations against the shogunate. The daimyo had to maintain a large residence and support facilities in Edo as well as in their domain. They also had to travel to and from Edo along a route dictated by the shogunate. Most traveled on the Tokaido because the Nakasendo was used by the imperial court, but the overall burden was spread between the two roads. The whole system consumed about 25% of the income available to most daimyo.

The shogunate was only one part of the bakuhan system, however; the domains were the other. The domains were independent with regard to their internal arrangements as long as there was no conflict with the shogunate’s interests. In practice, the domains voluntarily duplicated the shogunate’s system of government to a large degree because the interests and problems of a daimyo at his level were similar to those of the shogunate: how to maintain stability and order. Furthermore, the powers which the shogunate exercised over the domains had the effect of forcing the domains to behave in much the same manner since they were facing the same requirements.

For example, all substantial domains maintained commercial operations in Osaka, the national market, in order to sell rice and other commodities so as to raise the cash required by the alternate attendance system. This standardization did much to reduce regional differences and potential antagonisms throughout the Edo period.

Like the shogunate, the daimyo had a high interest in pacifying and controlling their subjects and the samuraiin general. During the late 16th Century, Toyotomi Hideyoshi disarmed the peasants through a series of sword hunts with the intention of reducing their contribution to turmoil and to pin them to agricultural activity alone. In the years after 1588, samurai were progressively removed from their independent fiefs in the countryside and brought into the daimyos’ castle towns to live. The samurai became separated from the peasantry both in social role and place of residence.
- source : nakasendoway.com


under construction
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. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]- - - - - #edobakufu  #bakuhan - - - -
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12/27/2015

Sumitomo family business

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. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .
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The Sumitomo family 住友家
and doozan 銅山 Dozan copper mines in Japan


- quote
The Sumitomo Group, of which Sumitomo Corporation is a key member, dates to the 17th century establishment of a book and medicine shop in Kyoto by 小次郎政友 Masatomo Sumitomo. Sumitomo's brother-in-law 蘇我理右衛門 Riemon Soga developed a technology to extract silver from copper, and Soga's son (who married Sumitomo's daughter) 住友友以 Tomomochi Sumitomo expanded this smelting business to Osaka.
From this start, the Sumitomo family expanded its business into copper mining (the Besshi copper mine), followed by textiles, sugar and medicine trading.
Its 家号 Yago house name was 泉屋 Izumiya.

The Sumitomo family was close to the Tokugawa shogunate throughout the Edo period. During the 1860s, this relationship became a liability for the firm as the Tokugawa clan warred with rivals in western Japan. Following the Tokugawas' defeat, Sumitomo was almost ruined and under pressure to sell the Besshi mine, which by that point was nearly unworkable. However, Sumitomo kept the mine and improved its output through adoption of new Western techniques.
During the rapid westernization of Japan in ensuing decades, Sumitomo started various new trading, manufacturing and financing businesses, becoming one of the major zaibatsu of early 20th century Japan.

Sumitomo Corporation (住友商事株式会社 Sumitomo Shōji Kabushiki-gaisha)
is one of the largest worldwide Sogo shosha general trading companies, and is a diversified corporation. The company was incorporated in 1919, it is a member company of the Sumitomo Group.
- source : wikipedia




Sumitomo Corporation
- source : sumitomocorp.co.jp -

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- quote -
住友家の起源 - 始祖・家祖・業祖
住友の姓は、戦国の末、もともと先祖に順美平内友定という人物がおり、桓武天皇の曾孫・高望王の二十二代目にその子・小太郎(忠重)が父の姓と名をとって「住友」の姓を称して室町将軍に仕えて、備中守に任じられたのに始まる。

平家の末裔である戦国武士だった住友家の先祖は、国取り物語の戦国時代を有為転変の歴史を生きる。室町将軍に仕えた「始祖」・住友忠重の子・頼定は、足利義晴に仕え、頼定の子・定信は刑部承と称した。そして、定信の子・定重は、今川義忠(今川義元の祖父)に仕えるが、定重の子・信定の代になり、今川氏が滅んでしまったので、摂津の中川清秀に仕え、入江土佐守と称し、中川十六騎の一人として知られたが、尾崎の陣で戦死してしまう。また入江土佐守(信定)の子・政俊は越前国の柴田氏に仕え、若狭守と称し越前丸岡城にあったが、柴田勝家と共に北庄城で滅んでしまった。政俊の子・長行は、徳川家康の子で結城家へ養子入りした結城秀康に用いられるが、住友家の武家の歴史はここまでである。戦国の習いとはいえ、武家社会の興亡の激しさと無情を感じたのか長行は、自分の子供たちに武家の世界から足を洗わせた。
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -



新居浜市角野新田町3丁目13番

- quote -
The Besshi copper mine (別子銅山 Besshi dōzan) was a rich source of copper in Niihama, Ehime Prefecture.
The deposits were discovered in 1690, and mining began in the following year. From then until the closing of the mine in 1973, Besshi produced about 700,000 tons of copper, and contributed to Japan's trade and modernization. The Sumitomo family managed the mine, which helped build the Sumitomo zaibatsu. The Dōzan River was named after the copper mine.
The Minetopia Besshi theme park uses some of the mine's facilities.
- source : wikipedia -

During the Edo period, the copper had to be carried from the high mountain down to the beach at Niihama. Male porters with 45 kg in a backpack and female porters with 30 kg had to go down a very small and dangerous mountain path of about 12 kilometers with this load.
In a recent re-creation some male porters made it for just a few meters and than had to give up because it was too dangerous.
Hirose Saihei 広瀬宰平 (1828 - 1914)
was the first 初代住友総理人 Director-General.
- source : Rules Governing the House of Sumitomo -
At the beginning of the Meiji period, modern equipment was introduced by Hirose as much as possible, with mountain railroads and ropeways to carry the burden.
But the immense smoke produced during the melting process caused damage to the local crops 煙害問題.
Iba Teigo 伊庭貞剛 (1847 - 1926) - second director genera.
Even a re-location of the ovens and a huge chimney on an uninhabited island off Niihama 四阪島 could not solve the problem and only caused further damage to a large part of the surrounding farms. Finally special filters were developed to contain the poisonous smoke.
The history of Besshi Copper Mine was taken up in a very instructive TV infotainment in january 2016.


Hyakunen no Kei, Watashi ni Ari
Shirarezaru Meiji SangyouIshin Leader Den
Cast: Enoki Takaaki, Ishiguro Ken,
Asari Yosuke, Asaka Mayumi, Hiki Rie, Yamada Kinuo, Patrick Lample
Synopsis:
Sumitomo’s first director general was Hirose Saihei (Enoki Takaaki) who grew up at the Besshi Copper Mine run by the house of Sumitomo in Shiga Prefecture from young. He convinces Sumitomo to embark on modernising its mine “for the sake of Japan 100 years into the future”.
Persistent and particular about modernisation at the hands of the Japanese, he was an active proponent of transferring Western technology. He made his subordinate Shiono Monnosuke (Asari Yosuke) study in France and learn mining technology. This is how the copper mine was rapidly modernised.
But on the other hand, the smoke emissions from smelting mill caused environmental problems. It was Hirose’s nephew Iba Teigo (Ishiguro Ken) who volunteered to tackle this difficult situation. In order to solve the root of the problem, Iba proposed an incredible plan to move the modern smelting mill, which was completed less than 10 years ago, to another place just like the current. A furious Hirose was absolutely against this reckless plan. But Iba talked him into it and even carried out a huge reforestation plan to restore nature at the mountains of Besshi that had been devastated by mining and smelting that spanned 200 years. Iba would go on to become Sumitomo’s second director general.
How far did the reforms of Hirose and Iba get?
- source : jdramas.wordpress.com -

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葛がくれ幕府御用の銅の道
kuzugakure bakufu goyoo no doo no michi

hidden in Kuzu
the copper road
of the Bakufu


品川鈴子 Shinagawa Suzuko



別子銅山のぼれば桔梗また桔梗
Besshi doozan noboreba kikyoo mata kikyoo

Besshi copper mine
climbing up there are Chinese bellflowers
and more bellflowers


津村芳水 Tsumura Hosui


. kikyoo 桔梗 Chinese bellflower - Platycodon grandiflorus. .
- kigo for autumn -

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草笛に吹くよ別子の銅山節
kusabue ni fuku yo Besshi no doozanbushi

blowing it
on a reed flute -
the Besshi Copper Mine Song


品川鈴子 Shinagawa Suzuko




別子銅山せっとう節 Besshi Dozan Settobushi
江戸時代から鉱山へ出稼ぎにきた坑夫たちによって歌い継がれた作業歌とされています。
女は絣の着物にタスキがけ、男は坑夫のいでたちで登場します。
- reference -


. kusabue 草笛 "reed flute" .
- kigo for summer -

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- - - - - There was one more important copper mine in Japan.

Ashio doozan 足尾銅山 Ashio Dozan, Ashio Copper Mine

- quote -
The Ashio Copper Mine, Ashio, Tochigi prefecture, became very significant from the end of the 19th century to the mid-20th century. It was the site of major pollution in the 1880s and the scene of the 1907 miners riots.



The Ashio mine has been in existence at least since 1600 when it belonged to the Tokugawa shogunate. At that time it produced about 1,500 tons annually, although this declined when the mine was closed in 1800. It became privately owned in 1871 following the industrialisation initiated by the Meiji restoration. By 1877 it became the property of Furukawa Ichibei, and by the 1880s production had increased dramatically, reaching 4,090 tons by 1885, 78 per cent of the total output of the Furukawa mines and 39 percent of Japan's copper production.

The Ashio mine was shut down in 1973.
The Ashio Copper Mine Incident is the name given to the environmental disaster that occurred as a result of the Ashio mining operations in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


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. Kaido 街道 the old highways .

akagane kaido あかがね街道 / 銅街道 copper highway
doozan kaido 銅山街道 copper mine highway

Connecting the Ashio copper mine with the 前島河岸 Maejima coast.
About 45 km long with a difference in hight of about 600 m.


- CLICK for more photos !

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製錬のにほひかそかに夏山路
seiren no nioi kasoka ni natsu yamaji

the faint smell
of metal smelting
on the summer mountain road


上村占魚 Uemura Sengyo (下野足尾銅山)

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足尾銅山枯葉に重さありにけり
Ashio doozan kareha ni omosa ari ni keri

Ashio copper mine
and the withered leaves
feel so heavy . . .


渡辺恭子 Watanabe Kyoko




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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

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Akita 阿仁合村 Aniai - 阿仁銅山 Ani copper mine

gingitsune 銀狐 the silver fox
Once upon a time a rich merchant from Osaka found a silver fox in his garden, but when he woke up from this dream, his wife had turned into a silver fox. So the wife-fox left her husband, but he came after her, travelling around in Japan. One day his wife-fox appeared again and told him, if he climbed up this mountain he would find precious metal.
This is the beginning of the Ani doozan 阿仁銅山 copper mines in Ani .

阿仁鉱山 Ani Kozan mines for copper, gold and silver.
Copper was first found in 1716. Shut down in 1987.



- quote -
Originally developed as a gold mine in 1300s, Ani mine became one of the top three copper mines in Japan with the highest record copper production in 1716 when operated by the Satake clan.
German mining engineers were invited in the 19th century to further improve its production. Ijinkan is a western building that used to accommodate such engineers, including Adolf Meckel, and was later used as a guesthouse after they left. The building was designated a national cultural asset in 1990.
- source : akita-ecotown.com -

. Kaido 街道 Highways of Japan .

Ani Kaidoo 阿仁街道 Ani Kaido Highway

From 角館 Kakunodate via the pass 大覚野峠 Daigakuno Toge to 阿仁銀山町 Ani Ginzan town, then to 米内沢 Yonaizawa and 小繁 Kotsunagi.
The part until the pass is also called
大覚野街道 Daigakuno Kaido
- reference and photos : akitabi.com/ani... -

Connecting to
角館街道 Kakudate Kaido, 刈和野街道 Kariwano Kaido, 生保内街道 Obonai Kaido and 五城目街道 Gojome Kaido.


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Akita 土川 Tsuchikawa - 杉沢銅山 Sugisawa copper mine

katame no sakana 片目の魚 fish with one eye
The stonefish (kajika 鰍) from Tsuchikawa village living below the copper mine lost one eye when the paths were hit by a landslide and the blood of the killed workers flowed down the river, filling one of the fish's eyes.

This mine for gold, silver, copper, lead and zinc in the 大仙市 Daisen town district was closed in 1972.

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Gifu 洞戸村 Horado

hitokui Ebisu 人喰いエビス man-eating Ebisu
This man-eating Ebisu was hit by an arrow from 正之御前 Masa no Gozen at 弓保木, the blood of Ebisu flew down the river at 赤谷 Akadani and he finally fled to 恵比寿山 Mount Ebisusan to the copper mine grotto 銅山岩屋 (also called Ebisugura エベスグラ.)

There is a small shrine in honor of Masa no Gozen 正の御前, 正之御前社.
It is about 540 meter high on Ebisu mountain.



In the shrine is a deity and two bronze mirrors.
A warrior from Echizen who had lost his head in battle and his retainer Masa no Gozen burried it on the mountain.
- source : sankyoharinko -

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- source : nichibun yokai database -

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. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]
- - - - - #sumitomo #besshicopper #edobakufu #akagane #copperkaido - - - -
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12/21/2015

Bakufu Edo Government

[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
. Edo Bakufu - articles .
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Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government and Administration
Tokugawa bakufu 徳川幕府 Tokugawa Government




- quote
The Tokugawa shogunate, also known as the
Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) and
the Edo bakufu (江戸幕府), was the last feudal Japanese military government which existed between 1603 and 1867.
The heads of government were the shoguns, and each was a member of the Tokugawa clan. The Tokugawa shogunate ruled from Edo Castle and the years of the shogunate became known as the Edo period. This time is also called the Tokugawa period or pre-modern (Kinsei (近世)).

The bakuhan taisei (幕藩体制) was the feudal political system in the Edo period of Japan. Baku, or "tent," is an abbreviation of bakufu, meaning "military government" — that is, the shogunate. The han were the domains headed by daimyo.

1 History
2 Government
2.1 Shogunate and domains
2.2 Shogun and the Emperor
2.3 Shogun and foreign trade
2.4 Shogun and Christianity

3 Institutions of the shogunate
3.1 Rōjū and wakadoshiyori (roojuu, roju 老中)
3.2 Ōmetsuke and metsuke (oometsuke 大目付)
3.3 San-bugyō (san bugyoo) - three administrators
3.4 Tenryō, gundai and daikan (Tenryo 天領)
3.5 Gaikoku bugyō (gaikoku bugyoo)

4 Late Tokugawa Shogunate (1853–1867)
5 List of the Tokugawa shoguns
- source : wikipedia

karoo 家老 Karo, chief retainer
He stayed at the domain and looked after the regional affairs on behalf of the Daimyo.

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- - - - - keywords including BAKU 幕 - - - - -

Bakuchoo Sensoo 幕長戦争 Bakucho Senso war
between the Bakufu and the 長州 Choshu Domain
Chōshū Rebellion
also called 長州征討 Choshu Seito, 長州征伐, 長州出兵, 長州戦争
In the Kinmon Incident on 20 August 1864, troops from Chōshū Domain attempted to take control of Kyoto and the Imperial Palace in order to pursue the objective of Sonnō Jōi. This also led to a punitive expedition by the Tokugawa government, the First Chōshū expedition (長州征討).
第一次長州征討 First Chōshū expedition
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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幕府放鷹制度 rules about takagari 鷹狩り hawk hunting, falconry (BF)
. takagari 鷹狩 hunting with hawks and falcons .

bakufu kansen 幕府艦船 Bakufu ships (BF)
bakufu kansenn 幕府官船

. bakufu goyootashi 幕府御用達 craftsmen working for the Bakufu government .

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. bakuhan taisei 幕藩体制 Bakuhan system .

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Bakumatsu 幕末 end period of the Bakufu (1853 - 1867)

. Bakumatsu 幕末 写真 photo collection .

. Bakumatsu aera 幕末の人  people visiting Japan (1853 - 1867) .

幕末のジャーナリズムー Bakumatsu Jurnalism
. kawaraban 瓦版 Edo newspaper, handbill, broadside .

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. bakuryoo 幕領 Bakuryo government land, bakufu-owned land, .
bakufu chokkatsu chi 政府直轄地 / bakufu chokkatsu ryoo 幕府直轄領
shogun's direct holdings, personal land- holdings, personal fief of the Tokugawa
tenryoo, tenryō 天領 Tenryo Government Land "Land of Heaven"


. mizubugyoo, mizu bugyō 水奉行 Waterworks administrator .

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A Shogun (将軍 Shōgun) "general", lit. "military commander"
was a hereditary military dictator in Japan during the period from 1192 to 1867, with some caveats. In this period, the shoguns were the de facto rulers of the country, although nominally they were appointed by the Emperor as a formality. The Shogun held almost absolute power over territories through military means, in contrast to the concept of a colonial governor in Western culture who was appointed by a king.
Sei-i Taishōgun (征夷大将軍, "Commander-in-Chief of the Expeditionary Force Against the Barbarians"
..... in reality shōguns dictated orders to everyone including the reigning Emperor.
Kamakura shogunate (1192–1333)
Ashikaga shogunate (1336–1573)
Tokugawa shogunate (1603–1868)

- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

shoogun senge  将軍宣下 appointment to shogun
imperial authorization for shogunal investiture

江戸幕府の征夷大将軍‎ The Tokugawa Shoguns

Tokugawa Ieyasu 徳川家康 (1543–1616) - the first Shogun
..... He received the title sei-i taishōgun in 1603
Tokugawa Hidetada 徳川秀忠 (1579–1632)
Tokugawa Iemitsu 徳川家光 (1604–1651)
Tokugawa Ietsuna 徳川家綱 (1641–1680)
Tokugawa Tsunayoshi 徳川綱吉 (1646–1709)

Tokugawa Ienobu 徳川家宣 (1662–1712)
Tokugawa Ietsugu 徳川家継 (1709–1716)
Tokugawa Yoshimune 徳川吉宗 (1684–1751)
Tokugawa Ieshige 徳川家重 (1712–1761)
Tokugawa Ieharu 徳川家治 (1737–1786)

Tokugawa Ienari 徳川家斉 (1793–1853)
Tokugawa Ieyoshi 徳川家慶 (1793-1853)
Tokugawa Iesada 徳川家定 (1824–1858)
Tokugawa Iemochi 徳川家茂 (1846–1866)
Tokugawa Yoshinobu 徳川慶喜 (1837–1913) - the last Shogun

Tokugawa Tsunenari 徳川恆孝 (1940 - ) the 18th generation
His son, Tokugawa Iehiro , is a University of Michigan-educated translator.

- Tokugawa Branch Families
Tokugawa Mitsukuni of the Mito domain
Tokugawa Nariaki of the Mito domain
Tokugawa Mochiharu of the Hitotsubashi branch
Tokugawa Munetake of the Tayasu branch.

- - - - - The Matsudaira clan (松平氏 Matsudaira-shi)
Matsudaira Motoyasu changed his name to Tokugawa Ieyasu
Other branches were formed in the decades after Ieyasu, which bore the Matsudaira surname. Some of those branches were also of daimyo status.
Matsudaira Katamori of the Aizu branch.
Matsudaira Sadanobu, of Shirakawa
- - - - - 4 Key genealogies
4.1 Main line (Tokugawa shogun)
4.2 Hoshina-Matsudaira clan (Aizu)
4.3 Yūki-Matsudaira clan (Echizen) - Fukui Domain and Tsuyama Domain
4.4 Ochi-Matsudaira clan (Hamada)
4.5 Hisamatsu-Matsudaira clan (Kuwana)
4.6 Ogyū-Matsudaira clan (Okutono)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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tairoo, tairō 大老 Tairo "Great Elder" - chief councillor
roughly comparable to the office of prime minister.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


- quote -
A COMPLICATED PATCHWORK
The system for maintaining law and order during the Edo period differed fundamentally from our modern system in that law enforcement and criminal justice were carried out by the same organs. That is to say, one agency or office carried out the functions that are today performed separately by police, prosecutors, and the courts. This means that the administrative and judicial functions of government were merged rather than deliberately separated as they are in modern democratic states.

Although the Tokugawa shogunate held sway over the daimyô (lords) of all the country’s domains, the administration of each of these domains was left to the individual daimyô; in principle, the shogunate administered only its own domains. However, since the administrative apparatus of each domain, including law enforcement and criminal justice, closely resembled the system established by the shogunate, an examination of the latter system should be sufficient to provide an overview of law enforcement in the Edo period.

The top administrative post under the shôgun was that of rôjû, or senior councillors. (At times a tairô, or chief councillor, was appointed as a superior to the rôjû, but this was not a permanent post.) Typically, the shogunate appointed four or five rôjû from among the fudai daimyô, lords of the domains that Ieyasu, the first Tokugawa shôgun, had originally granted to his loyal vassals in the early seventeenth century. The rôjû generally took turns managing the shogunate’s administrative affairs according to a monthly rotation system, although they came together to confer on matters of importance. Ranking just below the rôjû were the wakadoshiyori, or junior councillors. They were also chosen from among the fudai daimyô and likewise served according to a monthly rotation. Since the rôjû and wakadoshiyori together made up the top administrative organ of the Tokugawa government, they were inevitably involved in matters pertaining to law enforcement and criminal justice, whether directly or indirectly.

Next in importance in the central administrative apparatus were the metsuke (inspectors) and ômetsuke (inspectors general), whose main job was to monitor and control the activities of the ruling warrior class. The ômetsuke, reporting directly to the rôjû, monitored the daimyô, while the metsuke, who were under the supervision of the wakadoshiyori, focused on the shôgun’s direct retainers—the hatamoto, or bannermen, and the gokenin, or housemen. Both were selected from among the hatamoto. With its reliance on peer monitoring, the metsuke system might be compared to the military police of a modern army or the internal affairs bureau of a police department.

The highest offices with direct police and judicial authority were the three bugyô, or commissioners, who reported to the rôjû. While many of the positions within the vast shogunal bureaucracy had originated as military posts in the era of civil unrest prior to the Edo period, the posts of the three bugyô were created after the shogunate was established in Edo, and they had a distinctly civilian flavor.

The first and highest-ranking of the three was the jisha bugyô (commissioner of temples and shrines), who had authority over the lands of all the temples and shrines in the country, the priests and monks attached to those institutions, and the people living within their precincts. In addition to wielding general administrative authority over these lands and people, the jisha bugyô also adjudicated civil suits, investigated crimes, and tried suspected criminals associated with the temples and shrines.

The central job of the kanjô bugyô (commissioner of accounts) was fiscal management, but the holder of this post also wielded police authority with regard to serious crimes carried out within most of the shogunate’s direct holdings. This is because the authority of the gundai or daikan who directly governed those areas (the name depended on the size of the holding) extended only to the collection of taxes from local farmers and the prosecution and adjudication of civil cases and certain minor criminal cases; in all other criminal cases, the accused, together with the record of the preliminary investigation, was sent to the higher court in Edo, namely the kanjô bugyô. Since the kanjô bugyô thus combined the authority of a finance minister and a chief justice, only the most capable people could fill the post, and they were kept very busy. Four people ordinarily filled it on a monthly rotating basis.
- source : japanecho.com/sum/2004 -

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. nengoo, nengō 年号 Nengo, "year name", era name .


. Edo goyaku 五役(ごやく) the five official workers of Edo .
御駕籠之者(おかごのもの)okagonomono, o-kago no mono
御中間(おちゅうげん)ochuugen, o-chugen
御小人(おこびと)okobito, o-kobito
黒鍬之者(くろくわのもの)kurokuwa no mono
御掃除之者(おそうじのもの)gosooji no mono, go soji no mono

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rusui, rusui-yaku, rusuiyaku 留守居役 caretaker

- quote -
Rusui yaku were samurai officials in the service of Edo period domains, who oversaw the administration of the domain's mansions in Edo or other cities in the lord's absence. They served an extremely important role as the domain's representative in the city, as administrators and intermediaries, facilitating the domain's involvement in political and economic matters in the major metropolises.
The responsibilities of a rusuiyaku
were diverse and extensive, including maintaining the domain's mansion and preparing it for the arrival and residence of the lord or other members of his household; communicating on behalf of the domain with the shogunate and other official institutions, including at times filing formal inquiries or complaints with the shogunate; and communicating with the rusuiyaku of other domains, as intermediaries in arranging various political, personal, or economic matters between domains; among many other activities.
- source : wiki.samurai-archives.com... -


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- - - - - Alphabetical Index of Keywords 用語解説 - - - - -

- AAA - / - BBB - / - CCC - / - DDD - / - EEE -

- FFF - / - GGG - / - HHH - / - I I I - / - JJJ -

- KK KK - / - LLL - / - MMM - / - NNN - / - OOO -

- PPP - / - QQQ - / - RRR - / - SSS - / - TTT -

- UUU - / - VVV - / - WWW - / - XXX - / - YYY - / - ZZZ -


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江戸幕府大事典 Edo Bakufu Daijiten Dictionary
by 大石学 Oishi Manabu

将軍・老中・火付盗賊改・畳奉行・鷹匠、江戸城 ( 門・櫓・堀) ・陣屋・奉行所、参勤交代・幕府の儀式...。
家康から慶喜まで、265年にわたり日本を治めた江戸幕府。最新の成果で描く概論と、職制・陣屋・儀式などの用語解説で、幕府の基礎情報を集成。役職存在期間一覧、索引などの付録も充実した.
年中行事 - 官僚制 - 建築物
役職については、支配・役高・詰間などの基本情報から職務内容・改廃・主要人物なども解説。施設(陣屋・奉行所・役所・牢屋・刑場など)については、現在地・構造のほか、設置から廃止までの沿革も詳述する
(江戸幕府大辞典)

- quote -
- 内容説明
家康から慶喜まで、265年にわたり日本を治めた江戸幕府。最新の研究成果で描く概論と、将軍から牢屋下男にいたる多様な職制や江戸城の諸施設、陣屋、制度・儀式などの用語解説により、幕府の基礎情報を集成する画期的な大事典。役職存在期間一覧・幕府年中行事一覧・江戸城間取り図などの便利な付録・索引も充実した〈江戸幕府〉百科の決定版。

【特色】
●江戸幕府のすべてがわかる
総項目約1800。初期から幕末まで、265年にわたる江戸幕府の政治・制度を理解するための基礎情報を1冊に集成

●江戸幕府をより深く知るための工夫をこらした構成
概説で江戸幕府を総合的に論じ、用語解説で具体的な事項を解説。さらに付録で江戸時代の役職の存在期間や年中行事、幕府施設の所在地などを一覧化する

●最新の研究成果を反映
官僚制・儀式研究・公文書論などの新たな視点も取り入れ、最新の研究成果を反映。施設については、考古学・建築学など周辺分野の成果もふまえて解説する

●江戸幕府の役職・施設を網羅
役職については、支配・役高・詰間などの基本情報から職務内容・改廃・主要人物なども解説。施設(陣屋・奉行所・役所・牢屋・刑場など)については、現在地・構造のほか、設置から廃止までの沿革も詳述する

●江戸城の全貌がよみがえる
城内の各部屋の名称や場所・用途をくわしく解説。そのほか、門・櫓・堀も網羅的に取り上げ、江戸城の全貌を再現する

●充実した巻末付録と、検索が便利な索引を付載
主な付録
*職制図(江戸時代後期と幕末を含む)
*役職存在期間一覧
(江戸時代に刊行された武鑑などから、役職が史料にみえる時期を一覧化)
*幕府年中行事一覧
(御礼惣登城の儀・八朔など幕府の行事から花見・七夕など大奥の行事も一覧)
*江戸・大坂・京都の地図
(町奉行所など、江戸・大坂・京都それぞれの町中の幕府関連施設の位置を図示)
*代官所・遠国奉行所の地図
(全国の陣屋・遠国奉行所の位置を図示)
*江戸城の御殿図
- reference source : yoshikawa-k.co.jp... -


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. Bakufu Meeting with PowerPoint .

. ninsoku yoseba 人足寄場 rehabilitation prison .
Hasegawa Heizô 長谷川平蔵 and
Law Enforcement in the Edo Period

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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

葛がくれ幕府御用の銅の道
kuzugakure bakufu goyoo no doo no michi

hidden in Kuzu
the copper road
of the Bakufu


品川鈴子 Shinagawa Suzuko



. doozan 銅山 Dozan copper mines in Japan .
Besshi copper mine 別子銅山 - Ehime
Ashio copper mine 足尾銅山 - Tochigi

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浜木綿の奔放に裂け幕府跡
hamayuu no honbo ni sake bakufu ato

北見さとる Kitami Satoru

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. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .


. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

. samurai, warriour, tsuwamono, bushi 侍, 兵、武士、兵士 .


[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]
- - - - - #edobakufu #bakufu - - - -
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10/24/2015

Yushima district

[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .
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Yushima 湯島 Yushima district    
文京区 Bunkyo ward, 湯島 Yushima 1 - 3, 本郷 Hongo 2.
The Northern slope along the 神田川 Kandagawa river was called 湯島台 Yushimadai,
the Southern slope was 駿河台 Surugadai.



湯島天神社 / Hirohsige 広重

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Chiyoda-ku, Sotokanda / Bunkyo-ku, Yushima
After the founding of Edo, this area became a residential area for lower rank vassals of the Shogun, and before long the Yushima-Tenjin Shrine monzencho (a town built originally in front of a temple or shrine) developed.
Yushima-Tenjin Shrine was revered as a god of learning by people of every social station, and lotteries were held within the shrine grounds. From the Genroku Era (1688-1704), the shrine dedicated to Confucius was moved from Ueno-Shinobugaoka, and the Shohei-zaka School was established within the grounds, and became a Shogunate government authorized educational facility.
A Shogunate government riding ground (Sakuranobaba) was established to the west of the shrine, and was used as a forge for cannons at the end of the Tokugawa Shogunate government. During the Edo Period, the area surrounding Kanda Myojin Shrine was made part of Yushima.

- - - - - More ukiyo-e about Yushima
広重 / 湯しま天神坂上眺望 / 湯しま天神雪のあくる日 / 湯しま天満宮 / 湯しま天神
- reference source : national diet library : yushima -

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. Yushima Kannon 湯島観音 柳井堂 Yanagii-Do 心城院 Shinjo-In .

. Yushima Tenjin 湯島天神 / 天満宮 Yushima Tenmangu .
Tenman-Gu in Dazaifu 大宰府の天満宮 and 菅原道真 Sugawara Michizane

quote
Yushima Tenmangu is a Shinto shrine commonly called Yushima Tenjin. This shrine was originally established in 458 A.D. in order to worship Ame no Tajikarao no Mikoto, one of deities appears in the Japanese myths. Later, in February 1355, the spirit of Sugawara Michizane, a historical figure, was also enshrined to venerate his extraordinary virtue as a scholar.

In October 1478, Oota Dokan (1432-86), a war lord in Kanto region, made the shrine building anew. Since then, many scholars and men of letters including Hayashi Doshun and Arai Hakuseki Confucian scholars in Edo period, have worshiped this shrine.
Nowadays many students visit this shrine to express their reverence to the enshrined spirit as Kami of Learning. Especially in the season of school entrance examinations, young students visit to pray for the success of passing examinations, presenting votive tablets called Ema.

CLICK for more photos
ema 絵馬 votive tablet

The shrine is also famous for beautiful blossoms of Ume (Japanese apricot) in the precinct.
In February and March, "Ume Matsuri"(Ume festival) is held, and it attracts many visitors who enjoy the Ume blossoms.
- source : yushimatenjin.or.jp


. Ame no Tajikarao no Kami 天手力男神 / 天手力雄神 .


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Yushima Temple Picture (Seidō no Ezu)
The picture shows Yushima Temple, which still exists in Yushima, Bunkyō Ward, Tokyo, looked upon its completion.
It was in 1690 (Genroku 3) that Tsunayoshi, the fifth Shogun of the Tokugawa Shogunate who was interested in learning, moved the Confucius Temple Kōshi-byō to Yushima.
Aiming to advance Confucianism, Tsunayoshi, the fifth Shogun of the Tokugawa Shogunate, established a temple in Yushima and moved the Confucius temple and private school that had been located at the Hayashi's private residence in Ueno Shinobugaoka. This was the beginning of Yushima Temple. In 1797 (Kansei 9), Hayashi's private school was then founded as a school under the direct control of the Tokugawa Shogunate, "shōheizaka school" (also known as Shōheikō).
The school accepted not only Shogun retainers but also children from around the country who passed an entrance examination called "sodoku ginmi". From all over the country, young people who carried their clan's future with them gathered in Yushima.
Unfortunately, the "Kōshi-byō (Confucius temple)" illustrated in the picture was burnt down during the Great Kanto Earthquake in 1923 (Taishō 12). Today's temple was re-established in the 1930's (Shōwa).
- source : Tokyo Metropolitan Library -

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Yushima Seidō 湯島聖堂 Yushima Seido, literally "Hall of the Sage in Yushima"
located in the Yushima neighbourhood of Bunkyō, Tokyo, Japan, was established as a Confucian temple in the Genroku era of the Edo period (end of the 17th century).
The Yushima Seidō has its origins in a private Confucian temple, the Sensei-den (先聖殿), constructed in 1630 by the neo-Confucian scholar Hayashi Razan (1583–1657) in his grounds at Shinobi-ga-oka (now in Ueno Park). The fifth Tokugawa shogun, Tsunayoshi, moved the building to its present site in 1690, where it became the Taiseiden (大成殿) of Yushima Seidō. The Hayashi school of Confucianism moved at the same time.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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source : ndl.go.jp/landmarks
本郷湯島絵図 Map of Hongo and Yushima

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- quote
Yushima - Education at Edo's First University
The Kanda River is a man-made waterway that splits the high land around Kanda in half. The steep-walled valley that carries this river (actually a canal) through Edo was dug in 1638, as part of the Kanda Josui (Kanda water supply) project that Tokugawa Iemitsu organised to supply water to the city. Before that, the whole area was one large plateau. Today, however, the river cuts through a deep valley in the neighborhood known as Ochanomizu, separating two hilly districts.
To the south is Surugadai, a residential area filled with the homes of lower-ranking samurai.
To the north is Yushima, which is the site of Edo's largest schools, and its only "university" -- the Shoheizaka gakumonsho.


お茶之水 / 御茶ノ水 Ochanomizu - 広重 Hiroshige

The Yushima area has been a center of culture and learning since Edo was built. In addition to all the schools in the area, which were constructed more recently, this district is also home to several influential shrines that were built even before Tokugawa Ieyasu moved to Edo in 1592. One of them -- Yushima Jinja -- has long been associated with knowledge and learning. Yushima Jinja sits on the top of Yushima hill, which is one of the highest points in the city. This shrine has been one of the prominent buildings in the area since the late Muromachi era.

From the top of the hill, there is a fine view out over the housetops of Kanda and Nihonbashi, and the blue waters of Edo Bay sparkle in the distance. As the city of Edo grew, many popular teahouses and restaurants grew up around the shrine. Customers liked to gather for long conversations at the teahouses, to enjoy the fine view of the city. In time, these teahouses became popular meeting places for teachers, students, academics and artists. They would hold meetings where they would eat, study, discuss important issues, play shogi (Japanese chess) and enjoy the wonderful view.

However, our destination today is not Yushima, which is several minutes walk from the Kanda River, but a smaller hill much closer to the river, known as Shoheizaka. This hill is named after the area where Confucius was born, and it gets its name because it is the main center of Confucian learning and education in Edo. The hill is covered by a cluster of large buildings that house Edo's main gakumonsho (school district). At the center of the district is the official government daigaku (university) established by the first shogun and run by the Hayashi family, who are the hereditary leaders of this university.

Shortly after Tokugawa Ieyasu became shogun, in 1603, he convinced a well-known Confucian scholar from Kyoto, named Hayashi Rinzan (Hayashi Razan), to move to Edo and become one of his main advisors. He needed a very intelligent individual who knew a great deal about government and social structure, and Rinzan was just the man. He helped Ieyasu design the structure for his bakufu government, and develop a set of laws to govern the country. Rinzan built his home in the area near Yushima shrine, and when he was not advising the shogun he gave lectures and tutored the children of leading daimyo and other top government officials.

Many years passed and Rinzan was no longer as busy helping the shogun plan government policy. However, demand for his tutoring continued to increase, so at last he decided to ask the shogun if he could set up his own private school, so he could offer more formal classes. When Ieyasu heard of this plan, he immediately commissioned Rinzan to set up an official government university, to serve all of the samurai families in Edo. He made Hayashi Rinzan the daigaku-no-kashira (head of the university) and decreed that Rinzan's descendants would always inherit this position.



Education is considered very important in Japan. Even farmers in rural areas send their children to the local Buddhist temples to study, or have tutors visit. In the urban areas, well over 90% of the population can read and write. The Buddhist temples across the country play an important role in education. Most Buddhist scriptures are written in Chinese, so in order to understand them, Buddhist monks and priests must study both Japanese and Chinese for many years. Buddhist scholars often travel to China to study, and they bring back many Chinese documents -- not only religious texts, but also books on literature, history, philosophy and so on. For this reason, most Buddhist temples have become centers of knowledge and education. In fact, Hayashi Rinzan was a Buddhist monk before he came to Edo to become Tokugawa Ieyasu's advisor

Ieyasu ordered Hayashi Rinzan to establish a large school that would be open to all children of the samurai class. The working-class people continued to get their education from monks and lay-teachers at the local temples, but Rinzan's new school was to be the main center of learning for the upper classes. Rinzan built the first gakumonsho near his home. It consisted of separate classes for different studies, such as writing, literature, poetry, history, government, and so on. The school was a big success, and it continued to grow steadily.

After Rinzan died, the school was taken over by his son, Hayashi Gaho, who developed a set of courses in different subjects, and who continued to build the reputation of the school. He was succeeded by his son, Hayashi Hoko, who many consider the most influential of all the daigaku-no-kashira. The fifth shogun , Tsunayoshi, was a private student of Hoko, and his early years as a student had a great impression on him. Tsunayoshi was not very athletic, but he loved reading and education. After he became shogun , he tried to repay his old teacher by paying to expand the school that Hayashi Rinzan had founded. In 1691, the shogun set aside a large area of land in Yushima to build larger and more suitable buildings where students could come to study. The area was named Shoheizaka (Shohei hill ) after the place where Confucius was born.

Tsunayoshi believed that education should be available to all people of Edo, so he decreed that the school should be open not only to samurai, but also to lower-class people such as merchants, artisans and farmers, as long as they could afford to pay the school fees. In practice, though, only a few rich merchants were able to send their children to this school. Still, the public lectures held each morning are often attended by commoners, and Yoshitsuna and later shoguns contributed funds to help expand the temple schools (tera-koya ), where the majority of lower-class people get their education.

Today, the gakumonsho is run by the great-grandson of Hayashi Rinzan. Although it has lost some of its influence, and it is no longer quite as open to students from the lower classes, it remains the most important school in Edo -- and probably in all of Japan. There are no grades in the gakumonsho; young and old students attend classes together, though in most of the classes they are separated according to ability. New students start out in courses that teach reading and writing. Younger instructors work with the students one-on-one, teaching them to read and write. At first, the students simply recite the pronunciation of characters and practice writing them. Depending on how quickly the student learns, this phase of study can take anywhere from a few months to two years. There are thousands of characters to learn, and the student must study very hard to learn them all.

After they have developed acceptable reading and writing skills, the students enter classes in reading, literature and mathematics. These classes usually have a few dozen students, and they take turns reading out loud from translations of some of the Chinese Classics, or from famous works of Japanese literature. This not only gives students a basic knowledge of the most important books, but it also helps them improve their reading and comprehension.

The higher-level classes are broken down by subject; for example, students may study history, government, poetry, literature or some other topic. In these classes, the teacher's role is mainly just a moderator. Students debate and discuss with one another the meaning and interpretation of various classic books. A passage will be selected and one student will give a speech explaining their intrepretation. Their classmates will listen, then debate the various interpretations with one another. The teacher may offer suggestions to get the discussion going, but will usually just listen as the students debate. Later, the teacher will give a lecture (often at one of the morning public lectures) and provide their own interpretation of the passage. This method helps the students improve their understanding as well as their debate and discussion skills.

The instruction at tera-koya (temple schools) is similar to that at the gakumonsho, but very few students pass beyond the first two stages, which teach reading, writing, literature and mathematics. Math skills are particularly important for merchant families, and nearly everyone learns how to use a soroban (abacus) in their first year at school. Although boys and girls are kept in separate classes at the tera-koya schools, girls receive nearly the same type of instruction as the boys. At some schools, girls make up nearly half of the total number of students.
This is much more than in rural areas, where girls tend to go to school for only a few years.
- source : Edomatsu


. Shooheizaka Gakumonjo 昌平坂学問所 Shoheizaka Gakumonjo .
and other gakumonjo 学問所 Academies of Higher Learning in the Edo period

. Hayashi Razan 林羅山 (1583-1657) . - Confucian Scholar

. Ochanomizu 御茶ノ水 / 御茶の水 / お茶之水 / 御茶ノ水 .

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- quote 聖橋 Hijiribashi -
A bridge connecting sanctuaries
Hijiri-bashi Bridge is a modern arch bridge on the Kanda River. The grand arch is a Tokyo landmark and is the model for the Otonashi-bashi Bridge in Takinogawa, Kita City.
The bridge may not be sacred, but it has got saintly connections as it connects two sanctuaries. In the north is The Mausoleum of Confucious at Yushima, a former training center for bureaucrats of the Tokugawa shogunate; and on the south is the Byzantine-style Holy Resurrection Cathedral — a designated Important Cultural Property of Japan.
- source : gotokyo.org/en ..

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. Japanese Legends - 伝説 民話 昔話 – ABC-List .


. Enmanji 湯島円満寺 temple Yushima Enman-Ji .
1 Chome-6-2 Yushima, Bunkyō
kimi 鬼魅 demon monsters / dakatsu (jakatsu) 蛇蝎 snakes and scorpions
On the 8th day of the 9th lunar month in 1820, there was a strong typhoon. A large tree fell down and two people died below it.
During such a strong wind, people think that demons, snakes and scorpions ride in the sky. Sometimes even if there is no wind, when they ride the sky things may fall down.


. neko 猫 / ねこ と伝説 Legends about cats, Katzen .
neko 猫 cat
At a 煎餅屋 Mochi rice cake store in front of Enman-Ji, a large cat came every night and ate many things. So the shop owner caught it, killed it and asked his wife to dispose of the dead body. After his wife came back, she changed in strange ways, scratched the face of her husband, made movements like a cat. The husband called the neighbours to help him catch and bind the woman. There she begun to cry ニャアニャアワウワウ nyanyaaaa like a cat. She put her head into the bowl of food and liked fish best - just like a cat!

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. Rinshōin 湯島麟祥院 Temple Yushima Rinsho-In .
4 Chome-1-8 Yushima, Bunkyo, Tokyo
麟祥 rinsho is an auspicious name according to Chinese Buddhism.
a Zen-temple near Yushima Tenmangu.

suzume ikusa 雀戦 fight of the sparrows
In 1832 onf the 6th to 10th day of the 8th lunar month, in the nearby forest of the forest, there lived more than 4000 sparrows.
They started to get in a fierce fight and even eat each other.

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猿飴の湯島の宮の七五三
saruame no Yushima no Miya no shichi go san

the Shichi-Go-San festival
at Yushima Shrine
with Monkey Sweets

Tr. Gabi Greve

. Mizuhara Shūōshi 水原秋櫻子 Mizuhara Suoshi (1892-1981) .

. shichi go san 七五三 "seven five three" ritual .
- - kigo for early winter - -

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. Kanda 神田 Kanda district  .

. Bunkyō 文京区 Bunkyo ward, "Literature Capital" .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. Japanese Legends - 伝説 民話 昔話 – ABC-List .


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