6/21/2015

niuriya food

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. Food vendors in Edo .
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niuriya, niuri-ya 煮売屋 / 煮売り屋 / にうりや selling simmered, boiled food
saiya 菜屋
niurizakaya 煮売り酒屋 selling simmered food and sake
ichizen meshiya 一膳飯屋 quick lunch vendor
ochazuke ya お茶漬け屋 selling o-chazuke



source : cleanup.jp
niuri zakaya 煮売り酒屋 selling simmered food and sake
A kind of famires, fami res  ファミレス "family restaurant" .

They sold all kinds of simmered food, like fish, beans and boxes with a variety simmered food (nishime 煮しめ). This is the forerunner of "fast food" in Edo. Most walked around in Edo to sell their food, others had a fixed stall (yatai 屋台). Specialised shops were called
niuri chaya 煮売茶屋 tea stalls selling simmered food.
They also sold soups, sashimi raw fish, nigiri sushi, nabemono hodge-podge and other kinds of "family food".
They sold their food in the stalls on small tablets, which were placed on the tatami beside the customer.
The true 居酒屋 izakaya for drinking only did not even have a place to sit.



source : shokubun/izakaya

Most of them made their business in the evening, but theirs was also a source of fire, so they had to be very careful with open fires to heat the food.
The niuriya business was strictly forbidden in Edo to work at night from 1661 to 1799.


Others sold their food from a boat, floating along the canals of Edo.
niuribune 煮売船 / 煮売り船
They sold to customers on ferries or pleasure boats.



source : suganet_2005/sasie


. chaya, -jaya 茶屋 tea shop, tea stall in Edo .

. Edo Yatai 江戸屋台 Food stalls in Edo .

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Niuriya - 落語 a Rakugo story  - told in English !
- source : kamigatarakugo.wordpress.com/ -

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煮売屋の入り婿 The son-in-law of the Niuriya shop
山中公男

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source : 江波文學塾

niurizakaya 煮売り酒屋 selling simmered food and sake

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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

我が庵や元日も来る雑煮売
我庵や元日も来る雑煮売
waga io ya ganjitsu mo kuru zooni uri

my humble hut -
but on the New Year's Day
the soup vendor comes

Tr. Gabi Greve

Kobayashi Issa

Since people were not supposed to cook on the New Year day, the vendors were very busy.
Issa lived in Edo, Hatchobori, when he wrote this haiku.

. WKD : Zoni... 雑煮 (ぞうに) New Year Soup.
- kigo for the New Year -

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富士仰ぐ一膳飯屋のさくらえび
Fuji aogu ichizenmeshiya no sakura-ebi

looking up to Mount Fuji
the cherryblossom shrimp
of the quick lunch shop


平林孝子 Hirabayashi Takako


CLICK for more photos !


. sakuraebi, sakura ebi, sakura-ebi 桜蝦 "cherryblossom shrimp.
- - kigo for late spring -

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. Izakaya in Edo 江戸の居酒屋 .


. - Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .


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[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]- - - - - #edoniuriya #niuriya - - - -
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6/14/2015

kashihonya lending books

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. - Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .
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kashihonya, kashihon'ya 貸本屋 booklender, booklender
furuhonya, furu-honya 古本屋 selling old books




貸本屋も盛んで、文化五年(1808年)の記録によると、貸本屋は地域ごとに組をつくっており、江戸では日本橋南組、本町組、神田組その他あわせて12組、合計人数約650人、大坂でも約300人という人数が貸本屋を営んでいました。また、天保年間(1830年代)の「江戸繁昌記」という文献では、江戸の貸本屋は八百軒とあり、その盛んな様子が伺えます。普通の貸本屋では、170-180軒ほどのお得意先があり、江戸だけで10万軒に及ぶ貸本読者がいたと考えられます。
- source : ameblo.jp/yonezu011 -


. shuppansha 出版社 publishing company, book publisher .
ABC - Introduction

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- quote
Kashihon'ya, or booklenders, played a prominent role in the publishing and distribution industry of Edo period Japan. While many consumers purchased books outright from publishers/bookshops or from traveling salesmen, borrowing of books from booklenders, and from one another, was extremely popular.

They are believed to have emerged around the late 17th century, if not earlier, with one source indicating the emergence of the term in 1713. By 1808, booklenders in Edo numbered at least 656, outnumbering public bathhouses in the city; this number jumped to at least 800 by the 1840s. Similar numbers were seen in Osaka. Most booklenders/booksellers maintained storefronts, but conducted much of their business through visits directly to the homes of regular customers, or by peddling books on the street. One scholar has estimated the customer base of each kashihon'ya at, on average, 150-200 households.



The book peddler, with a rectangular pile of books on his back, is actually a very common sight in ukiyo-e genre paintings. Traveling booklenders - or perhaps staff in the employ of a booklender from one of the major urban centers - are also known to have made visits to more rural communities and individuals.

The seal of the kashihon'ya would often be placed in the front of the book - either on the inside cover, or on the first page. Along with the seals of later owners of the books (e.g. 20th century Western collectors), these booklenders' seals provide interesting and useful information about the provenance or history of a particular copy of a book.

Prices varied dramatically from city to city and from one booklender to another, but are cited by historian Eiko Ikegami as being roughly 1/6th the cost of buying the book outright. She estimates the cost of purchasing a thin kibyôshi volume at less than 16 mon, the cost of a bowl of soba, but more than the cost of a visit to the public bathhouse.
- source : wiki.samurai-archives.com



. ezooshi 絵草子 illustrated book or magazine .
「絵草子屋」 ezooshiya store
Ezoushi - Also written 絵双紙.
otogizooshi 御伽草子 popular tales
ukiyo zooshi 浮世草子 Ukiyo-zoshi - books about the floating world

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- reference in Japanese - 貸本屋 江戸時代 -

- reference in English -



source : runomi.at.webry.info

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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

暦売る門前町の古本屋
koyomi uru monzenmachi no furuhonya

the used bookstore
of the temple town
sells calendars


Tsuchiya Kyooko 土屋孝子 Tsuchiya Kyoko

. kigo for the End of the Year .

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Edo no honyasan 江戸の本屋さん Book stores in Edo
今田洋三




Edo no kinsho 江戸の禁書 Prohibited books in Edo
今田洋三


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hatsuharu ni maneki neko itte furuhonya

The first day of spring
there is a welcoming cat
at the old bookshop.

. by Mr. Oyadomari

. manekineko 招き猫 beckoning cat .


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貸本屋唐と日本を背負ってくる
kashihonya sho too to nihon o seotte kuru

the booklender
carries China and Japan
on his back





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source : blog.goo.ne.jp/aboo-kai

貸本の底に春画や夏の午後
kashihon no soko ni shunga ya natsu no gogo

below the rental books
there are the Shunga -
afternoon in summer


Many peddlers had two kinds of clients . . . the dilligent housewifes and then . . . their husbands, with erotic booklets hidden at the bottom of their bags.


. shunga 春画 "spring paintings" erotic pictures .


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. - Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .


[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]- - - - - #edokashihonya #furuhonya #kashihonya - - - -
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6/04/2015

kabunakama merchant guild

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. The rich merchants of Edo - 豪商 gooshoo .
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kabunakama, kabu nakama 株仲間 merchant guild, merchant coalition
za 座 trade guilds, industrial guilds, artisan guilds


. Tanuma Okitsugu 田沼意次 .
encouraged the kabunakama system in Edo.
Roju Tanuma 老中 田沼意次 - 株仲間の奨励

Until then most of the tax payments had been the rice produced by the farmers of a domaine.
With natural disasters, drought and the great famine Tanuma turend to the merchants for more tax money and licensing fees.
He also introduced tax pamyemnt like
myoogakin 冥加金 and
unjookin 運上金 transportation tax, 長崎運上 related to Nagasaki since 1699

But all this in the end only leads to bribes and more bribes of those who have accumulated riches.



- quote
... merchant guilds in Edo period Japan, which developed out of the basic merchants' associations known as nakama. The kabunakama were entrusted by the shogunate to manage their respective trades, and were allowed to enjoy a monopoly in their given field.

Some kabunakama, known as gomen-kabu, were even allowed to set prices and manage the operations of other nakama. Though the shogunate originally opposed monopolies, they eventually gave in to the increasing numbers and organization of merchants' associations, and decided to make an attempt to control them by officially licensing them. In 1721, the government began to authorize individual nakama to become kabunakama (kabu refers to "shares", though these were themselves not tradeable), and to oversee the organization and trade within given fields. The goal was to encourage cooperation, not competition, and always to work towards the goal of advancing the economy. It is said that these groups became quite social and merchants' moral codes thus developed to a significant degree. Those who were not following ethical market behavior, behaving uncooperatively, or encouraging competition, were shunned by their kabunakama comrades, and likely by the larger market community.

The structure was originally created to replace older guilds, known as za 座, and by 1785, there were over one hundred kabunakama in Osaka alone, including a number granted special privileges by the shogunate, but taxed heavily in exchange. Some of these were groups entrusted and authorized to control the nation's trade in precious metals, iron, and copper.

In the 1840s, rōjū grand chancellor Mizuno Tadakuni attempted to do away with the kabunakama, in order to combat monopolies, but this and many of his other reforms were resisted so strongly by the merchants of Osaka (and others) that he was forced to abandon his efforts.
The kabunakama were all dissolved, however, in 1870 as the economy modernized and new forms of business associations appeared.
- source : wikipedia


- quote -
The za (座 lit. 'seat' or 'pitch')
were one of the primary types of trade guilds in feudal Japan.
They grew out of protective cooperation between merchants and temples and shrines; merchants would travel and transport goods in groups, for protection from bandits and the vacillating whims of samurai and daimyo (feudal lords). They would also enter into arrangements with temples and shrines to sell their goods on a pitch or platform in the temple's (or shrine's) grounds, placing themselves under the auspices and protection of the temple or shrine. The word za, meaning seat, pitch, or platform, was thus applied to the guilds. The name may have also come, more simply, from the idea of merchants within a guild or association sharing a seat or platform in the marketplace.
. . . The earliest za
came into being in the 12th century, consisting not only of trade guilds, but also guilds of performers and entertainers. Even today, performers of kabuki and noh are in associations called za (see Kabuki-za).
The za trade guilds appeared as a major force in the 14th century, and lasted in their original forms through the end of the 16th, when other guilds and trade organizations arose and subsumed the za.
Za in the Muromachi period
Za in the Sengoku and Edo periods

"free" markets and guilds, known respectively as rakuichi (楽市) and rakuza (楽座).
... One of the new types of organization was called nakama (仲間), or kabunakama (株仲間) when they were authorized by the Shogun.
... Another type of trade group, called toiya (or tonya in Edo), served as wholesale merchants, focusing primarily on shipping and warehousing. At this time, Osaka came into its own as a great port, and eclipsed Kyoto as the nation's primary center of trade, contributing further to the downfall of the original za.
- continue reading
- source : wikipedia -

- quote -
Ton'ya 問屋 trade brokers
called toiya outside of Edo, were trade brokers in Japan, primarily wholesalers, warehouse managers, and shipment managers; the term applies equally to the traders themselves and to their shops or warehouses. First appearing as early as the 12th century, ton'ya came to serve a crucial role in the economy of the Edo period (1603-1867).
The earliest record of a toi-otoko (問男) may be one from 1175, in which a number of Court officials hire an outside boatsman to transport them down the Yodo River. As he was not a servant or agent of the Court, or any manor, but rather a man hired out privately, this represents the emergence of the sorts of private enterprises which would come to dominate the economy centuries later.
The ton'ya of the Edo period were little different, essentially acting as independent agents for specific elements of the domestic trade; most often they were shippers, but many were local handlers, middlemen, or warehousers. They would be hired by a firm (a merchant, a shop, etc.) which operated out of one of the big cities to manage or handle the firm's goods in some other portion of the country. Wholesale freight shippers operating out of Osaka, transporting goods to Edo, numbered at least 24 in 1700, and a great many "guilds" existed specializing in the handling of individual types of goods, such as cotton, sugar, or paper. In addition, there were groups such as the Satsuma Tonya and the Matsumae clan Tonya, who specialized in the handling and transportation of goods within two of Japan's four great "gates" to the outside world; Matsumae, in Hokkaidō, governed the trade with the Ainu and Imperial Russia, while Satsuma, in Kyūshū, controlled trade with the Ryūkyū Kingdom and, through them, trade with Qing China.
Between the ton'ya and the numerous other types of groups in Osaka and Edo, including kabunakama, rakuza, and rice brokers (komedonya), Japan's primary urban commercial centers were extremely organized and powerful by the middle of the Edo period. Most of these groups would dissolve or evolve into something else entirely by the end of the Edo period, but they served an important role in facilitating the emergence of fully nationwide trade in early modern Japan.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


. komedonya, kome no tonya 米問屋 rice brokers - Introduction .

. juuhachi daitsuu 十八大通 18 big spenders in Edo .
most of them were the money-lenders of Kuramae 蔵前.


. tonya, toiya 問屋と伝説 Legends about trade brokers .


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- quote -
. . . Merchants and shopkeepers occupied the bottom of the social scale.
Initially they were hampered by restrictions on travel and trade, but later the increase in urban population as well as the need for greater cooperation between fiefs, led to the creation of guilds, and restrictions were lifted. Through the formation of guilds, which required official sanction from the Baku-Han, a nationwide network of commerce was established. It met important needs of both the Tokugawa Government and the local Daimyo. Tokugawa officials needed a convenient way to exchange for gold the tax revenue they received in rice. The Daimyo needed a central location at which to exchange their provincial goods for the goods of other provinces and thereby enhance the self-sufficiency of their fief. Both the Daimyo and the Tokugawa lords were motivated to support the guilds by a desire to increase the splendor of their lives.

The Baku-Han designated the city of Osaka as the principle port of exchange. There, great rice warehouses were established and a central currency was promoted. Rice warehouses became brokers and then lenders, trading on rice futures. The sanction of specific trade guilds, such as silk and sugar, soon followed. Next were the shipping guilds which improved the flow of merchandise and the carpentry guilds which enabled large-scale construction. Osaka quickly became the country's main center of commerce and its population of sellers, buyers and middlemen steadily grew.
- source : Steven Hunziker -

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天保十二年(1841)十二月、株仲間(商工業者の独占的な同業者組織)の解散令が出された
The kabunakama system has been abolished in 1841.


「諸道具寄合噂はなし」 
歌川国芳 Utagawa Kuniyoshi

- source : Tobacco and Salt Museum -


- quote -
The Role of the Merchant Coalition
in Pre-modern Japanese Economic Development:
An Historical Institutional Analysis
- source : Tetsuji Okasaki - pdf file -

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江戸の市場経済
歴史制度分析からみた株仲間



岡崎哲二 - amazon com

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Change in Tokugawa Japan
Economic Institutional Change in Tokugawa Japan
Edo jidai ni okeru kabu nakama kumiai seido

- reference -



Economy of Feudal Japan:
Nanban Trade, Shoen, Rice Broker, Za, Han, Scrip of EDO Period Japan, Wada Kaichin, Koban, Koku, Tonya, Ie, Kabunakama
- source : www.amazon.co.jp -


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. - Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .


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- - - - - #edokabunakama #kabunakama #tonya #brokers - - - -
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5/31/2015

sonryoya rental agent

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. Recycling and Reuse in Edo - リサイクル と 再生 / 再使用 .
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sonryooya, sonryoo-ya 損料屋 Sonryo-Ya, rental agent
kashimonoya  貸物屋

The Sonryoya would lend anything people in the big towns needed.
The rental business of our modern times starts here.

From robes or futon bedding to furniture, pots and pans . . . anything.

rentaru shoppu レンタルショップ rental shop



Sonryoya Kihachiro shimatsu hikae  損料屋喜八郎始末控え
山本一力 Yamamoto Ichiriki


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In the towns of Kyoto and Osaka were also specialized shops for funeral robes.
But in Edo there were none.

iroya いろや / 素ろ屋 / (色屋)

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貸し物屋お庸 江戸娘、店主となる / 平谷美樹 Hiraya Yoshiki
O-Yo from the Rental Shop becomes a Shop Owner


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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

損料屋涙がしみて五百とり
sonryooya namida ga shimite gohyaku tori

the rental shop owner
for tear spoils in the robes
asks 500 extra


When lending robes for a funeral, the rental shop owner would charge extra money when the robed were brought back, because they usually were spoiled by tears.
This was called
yogoshi dai 汚し代 extra money for spoiling something




下げ髪で御座りますかと損料屋
sagegami de gozaimasu ka to sonryooya

"Does the hair
hang down?" asks
the rental shop owner


If the hair or a person hangs down, a kimono collar would get dirty much easier, and thus the prize when lending would go up.



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. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. - Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .


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4/29/2015

juukumon cheap shops

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. - Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .
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juukumonya 十九文店 shops selling everything for 19 mon
juukumon ya, juukumon no mise




ichimon, ichi mon 一文 one Mon. a penny; a farthing
ein Pfennig; ein Heller


shimonya 四文屋 "Four Mon Shop"
Small shops in Edo where everything cost just one coin, the "Four Mon Coin".
That was the beginning of our 100 Yen Shop, the One Dollar Shop, the One Euro Shop.
Other cheap items in Edo were multiplied with four.

. Money in Edo - coins 銭 zeni .
- Introduction -

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source :oshie-miyabi.com/topics
juuhachi mon 十八文 18 mon dealer


These one-price for all shops began to appear in the Mid-Edo-Period around 1723.
Also written 19文店 or 19文屋.

At that time a bowl of soba buckwheat noodles cost 16 mon, so in our times it would be a price of 400 to 500 Yen.

They did not have fixed shops but sold on the busy streets on sunny days. Spreading a straw mat on the ground they could display their merchandise, from toys to household goods.
There were always many customers and onlookers at their "shop".

There was a time of decline in their popularity, but by 1810 they were back on the streets. Some changed their unified price to 38 mon 38文.
They sold lacquered bowls, hairpins and other more luxury items.

Other shops soon followed with a cheaper unified price of 13 mon 十三文, 13文.




In our modern times, we have
the 100 Yen shops 100円ショップ
where everything has one price (and mostly made in China).


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100円ショップ 大江戸



A modern kit with origami patterns from Edo 折り紙キット
sold at a modern 100 Yen Shop
- source : orioriori.at.webry.info


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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

十九文見世にいなかゞ五六人
juukumon mise ni inaka ga go roku nin

to the one-price cheap shop
five-six folks from the country come
to have a look

Tr. Gabi Greve

Many were on their way back to the countryside and wanted some cheap souvenirs for the family back home.

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- reference -


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. - Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .


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4/22/2015

hairstyle

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Hairstyles and hairdressers in Edo - - 髪 kami


CLICK for more photos !

. WKD : hair, hairstyle and kigo .
- Introduction -
- - - - - Edo Tsumami-Kanzashi 江戸つまみ簪 Ornamental Hairpins
- - - - - kanzashi uri かんざし売り hairpin vendor in Edo


. kami no omamori 髪のお守り amulets for hair .
bihatsu kigan 美髪祈願 praying for beautiful hair
- - - - - The words KAMI 神 for deity and KAMI 髪 for hair have a close relationship.
Mikami Jinja 御髪神社 Kyoto
kamizuka 髪塚 hair mound
priest Semimaru 蝉丸法師 and Sakagami Hime 逆髪姫 Princess "hair standing up"
Kushinadahime クシナダヒメ - Kushi inada hime -櫛名田比売 - 奇稲田姫



. okanjake おかんじゃけ / 御髪下 stick with hair made from bamboo .

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katsurashi, katsura shi 鬘師 wig maker
In the Edo period, wigs were not usually worn by normal people, but only by actors.
The wigs had to be carefully adjusted to the face of an actor in a certain role he was going to play.


鬘師の友九郎 The Kabuki wig maker Tomokuro
- source : Kabuki Costume - Ruth Shaver - googlebook -

- quote -
A wig for an actor or for a puppet. 役者や人形のための鬘。
Wigs used in Kabuki 歌舞伎
Japanese wig-making techniques date back to the 17th century Kabuki theater when men, who traditionally shaved the top of their heads, had to play the roles of women, Thus a wig-making industry grew up to serve the onnagata Kabuki actors (men playing the roles of women).
The wig is based on a "daigane" [台金 base-metal], a thin copper plate which is pounded to fit the shape of actor's head, onto which the hair weave (蓑 mino) is attached. It is said that this technique was invented in the Enpo Era (1673-1681). In the late Edo Period, "habutae" [羽二重 a kind of thin silk cloth] was attached to the thin copper plate to make the hairline appear more natural. This made the hair appear as though it were actually growing from the head.
They are basically constituted of 4 parts:
bin 鬢 [the sections of hair on both sides of the face],
tabo 髷 [hair on the back of the head],
mage 髱 [central section of hair done up in various shapes] - and
maegami 前髪 [forelock].
The shape of each of these parts can be changed with use of accessories called kakemono 掛け物 ("things attached") or sashimono さし物 ("things stuck through"). 
The roles and their characteristics are expressed by variations and combinations of each of these parts. For the same reason as for costumes, the degrees of exaggeration and stylization in Jidaimono are more extreme than for Sewamono.
The variety of wigs for Tachiyaku (male roles) is said to be about 1,000 kinds, but for Onnagata (female roles) there are only about 400, because the roles and their characteristics set for Tachiyaku are more complex.
- source : glopad.org/jparc -


. kamojiya 髪文字屋 / 髢屋 dealer in fallen hair .
ochanai おちゃない female collectors of fallen hair in Edo
kami 髪 お守り amulets for growing hair


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. hatsu kami 初髪 (はつかみ) "first hair"
..... 初結(はつゆい)first combing the hair
having the hair made up for the first time
..... yuizome 、結初(ゆいぞめ)
toshi no kami 年の髪(としのかみ)
sukizome 梳初 (すきぞめ) first combing the hair

CLICK for more photos
hatsu shimada 初島田(はつしまだ)first Shimada-style hair

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kamioki, kami oki 髪置 (かみおき) binding up the hair
..... kushi oki 櫛置(くしおき) using a comb
November 15, the full moon night of the Asian lunar calendar
Boys and girls at age three are combed tn this fashion for the first time. This is a celebration of growing up for the whole family.
A wig is made from white hemp or cotton and put on the head of the children, to show they will grow to ripe old age. After visiting the family deity (ujigami) there is a feast with all the relatives.
Boys are next celebrated at age 5, when they put on their first hakama trousers.
Shichigosan . Seven-Five-Three Festival

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chonmage ちょんまげ/ 丁髷 topknot
"samurai buns"
traditional hairstyle for samurai in the feudal era
It was originally a method of using hair to hold a samurai helmet steady atop the head in battle, and became a status symbol among Japanese society.
A traditional Edo-era chonmage featured a shaved pate. The remaining hair, which was long, was oiled and tied into a small queue which was folded onto the top of the head in the characteristic topknot.
During the Edo period, men of the hinin outcast class were required to keep their hair cut short without topknots.
Westerners associated the chonmage with backwardness and a lack of civilisation and this was one reason why Japanese cut their hair.
- source : more in the wikipedia


ema 絵馬 votive tablets with cut-off hair of samurai.
. hairstyles, chonmage ちょんまげ topknot .


The law sanpatsu dattoo 散髪脱刀 was enacted in 1871
In 1876, the haitoo-rei廃刀令 forbade non-uniformed personnel from wearing swords.
- quote -
(1871) Japan Abolishes the Samurai Topknot
On August 9, 1871 (Meiji 4), the Japanese government issued the danpatsurei (断髪令, Cropped Hair Edict), encouraging samurai to cut their distinctive chonmage topknot. It created a minor photography boom when samurai rushed to photo studios to get their photo taken before their chonmage was cut off. As a result of the edict, Western hair styles, called zangiri (散切り), became increasingly popular. This became a powerful symbol of the dramatic change overtaking Japanese society.

True reformation of the samurai system started when on January 10, 1873 (Meiji 6), the samurai’s right to be the only armed force was abolished and replaced by a modern, western-style, conscripted army. The new system was called chouheirei (徴兵令, Conscription Ordinance) and was the beginning of the end of the samurai system in Japan.

Samurai now became shizoku (士族). They retained some of their salaries, paid for by the government, but these were so low that many samurai were forced to find new employment.
- source : meijishowa.com/calendar -

Exhibition
The shape of chic : fashion and hairstyles in the Floating World
Yale University Art Gallery, March 18-May 4, 1986 / Shauna J. Goodwin.
Publisher [New Haven] : The Gallery, c1986.

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source : ukiyo-e.org

Actor Nakamura Tomijûrô as a Kamiyui (Hair Dresser)
by Katsukawa Shunsho


kamiyui 髪結い hairdo master, hairdresser
- - - - - motoyui 元結い / mageyui 髷結い
onna kamiyui shi 女髪結師 hairdresser specialized for female hair

Most of the female kamiyui went from home to home in the morning to cater to their regular customers. Some later on opened their own shop.
If a woman worked as a kamiyui, she made enough money to earn her own and feed her husband and family.



source : rakugo-fan.at.webry.info

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The Independent Working Woman as Deviant in Tokugawa Japan,
1600-1867

snip
According to historian Nishioka Masako, the first female hairdressers were spotted in Osaka sometime between the Meiwa (1764-71) and Anei (1772-80) eras. While the early hairdressers catered mostly to women of the pleasure quarters, it was not long before they began attracting women of the artisan and merchant classes. Yasukuni has pointed out that popular hairstyles were not only fashionable but also convenient, particularly for the townswomen who could maintain the same set for up to one or two months. By the Kaei (1848-53) era, there were more than 1,400 female hairdressers in Edo alone.

The emergence of the hairdressers exemplifies how far female labor had developed by the mid-Tokugawa period. In writer Tamenaga Shunsui's Shunshoku umegoyomi (1832), one of the female characters is a young hairdresser who is described as a tomboy, otherwise known as "anego" (female boss) among the town youths. While there is no reason to assume that all hairdressers took on a masculine character, it is likely that many were either self-sufficient or less dependent on the ie. Given the phrase, "kamiyui no teishu" (the hairdresser's husband) that referred to a man who lived off a woman's income, historian Seki Tamiko has suggested that the hairdressers' earnings were often on a par with men's.

The newly invented stereotypes that address the hairdressers' potential self-sufficiency must be considered within the context of a rapidly expanding commercial economy that supported the employment of independent wage-earning women and the society's continued fascination with yet denigration of female labor. As historian Susan Hanley has pointed out, during the course of the Tokugawa period the townspeople spent large proportions of their incomes on status goods and gifts to maintain and enhance existing social networks. These acts were serious challenges to the rigid social distinctions of the period and frowned upon by the Tokugawa government. In an episode in businessman Mitsui Takafusa's (1684-1748) Chonin kokenroku (ca. 1730), a merchant of Edo is severely punished when his spendthrift wife is mistaken for a lady by none other than the Shogun himself.

As historian Mikiso Hane has explained, some merchant households lost their fortunes by incurring the wrath of the ruling authorities. Hence the women who catered to the extravagant needs of merchant wives and daughters faced heavy consequences when they violated the official banning of hairdressers in a series of moral reforms in the late eighteenth century. Not only were the hairdressers fined, but their husbands and parents were also held accountable. Nevertheless, the hairdressers were continually brought back by popular demand.
- - - - - more  - source : Shiho Imai



CLICK for more Ukiyo-E with hair dressers.
喜多川歌麿 Kitagawa Utamaro

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kamiyuidoko 髪結床 hairdresser shop, hairstylist shop
Apart from cutting hair and doing hairstyles, many also offered cutting the beard of men ひげを剃る.

The first shop of this kind was opened by the hairstylist of Tokugawa Ieyasu、北小路藤七郎
Kitakoji Toshichiro. He got the permission to travel freely in Japan and finally settled in 赤羽 Akabane in Edo. In the time of the fourth generation, 幸次郎, he was allowed to open a shop in each suburb of Edo 一町一軒の髪結床.

- - - - - Later there were


source : blog.livedoor.jp/mugai_de_ia
uchidoko 内床 barbers working at home (clients were mostly men)

- and



dedoko 出床 hairdresser setting up a mobile shop at a busy road or bridge. Some also worked there with the order of keeping an eye on the people crossing the bridge (a sort of spy for the local police station).

and

bindarai 鬢盥 hairdresser working in the home of a client



source : blog.livedoor.jp/m-95_72230

「かみいどこ」 kami idoko in the local dialect of Edo.
Exhibit at the Fukagawa Edo Museum 深川江戸資料館


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. Edo Sanza 江戸三座 Kabuki in Edo .

梅雨小袖昔八丈 Tsuyu Kosode Mukashi Hachijô
Kamiyui Shinza 髪結新三 The Barber Shinza


The drama "Tsuyu Kosode Mukashi Hachijô" was premiered at the Nakamuraza in June 1873. It was based on Shunkintei Ryûô III's popular narrative "Shirokoya Seidan", which was about the exploit of the magistrate Ôoka Echizen-no-Kami Tadasuke (1677~1751) to solve the Shirokoya case.
Kawatake Shinshichi II was more interested in a crooked hairdresser than the upright magistrate. As a consequence, the scenes with Ôoka Echizen-no-Kami Tadasuke are rarely performed nowadays.

- summary
Shinza has enticed Chushichi, the Shirakoya clerk, to aid him in kidnapping Okuma, daughter of the Shirakoya's owner. Shinza sent back Yatagoro Genshichi, the gang leader who came to negotiate with him, but the landlord Chobe who comes to see Shinza is more than Shinza can cope with, and Shinza decides to release Okuma in exchange for 30 ryo in cash. But Chobe talks Shinza down and cheats him out of 15 ryo and half of a large bonito. Later, Genshichi ambushes Shinza and kills him to avenge the humiliation he suffered because of Shinza.
Usually this work is performed from the 'Shirakoya misesaki' scene in which Shinza persuades Chushichi to join his plot, to the 'Fukagawa emmadobashi' scene in which Genshichi takes his revenge on Shinza.

- Read the full text of the play here
- source : kabuki21.com/kamiyui_shinza




Kamiyui Shinza 髪結新三 The Barber Shinza

- Costume
Kamiyui Shinza is one of the dramatis personae of a Sewamono which realistically describes the lives of common people of the Edo period, so his costume is not exaggerated compared to the common people's clothing in that period. The characteristics of each role are expressed by the colors and patterns of their kimono. Shinza's costume is blue as shown in the photograph. This blue color shows that he is a stylish character, a fashionable edokko.
A tasuki (cord used to tuck up sleeves) is made by connecting pieces of mottoi (paper cords for tying up hair) used to tie mage (topknot or chignon), showing a customs of the kamiyui (hairdressers) of the period.

- Props
Kamiyui Shinza holds props reproduced so that they are identical to the tools used by ordinary hairdressers in the Edo period, and realistically acts out the situation of dressing hair. The actor playing this role learns in advance how to handle the tools and how to do hairdressing from the artisan called Tokoyama who dresses wigs, so that onstage the actor can look like a real hairdresser.
- source : Japan Arts Council, 2007


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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -


Four haiku by Kobayashi Issa about hairstyle, hairdo, hairdresser
Tr. by David Lanoue

髪結も大小さして初袷
kamiyui mo daishoo sashite hatsu awase

their hairstyles
long and short...
new summer kimonos



髪結も白い仲間や花の陰
kamiyui mo shiroi nakama ya hana no kage

the hairdos
of companions all white...
blossom shade



短よや髪ゆひどのの草の花
mijika yo ya kamiyui dono no kusa no hana

short summer night--
the hairdresser's wildflowers
blooming



夕立や髪結所の鉢の松
yuudachi ya kamiyui-doko no hachi no matsu

rainstorm--
outside the hairdresser's
a potted pine



. Welcome to Kobayashi Issa in Edo ! .

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寒紅や夫の好まぬ髪結はむ
池上不二子

さんざしの花巫女になる髪結うて
今野福子

祭髪結うてひねもす厨事
転馬嘉子



CLICK for more photos !


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髪結いの伊三次 Kamiyui no Isaji


source : blog.goo.ne.jp/aboo-kai/e


He was the hero of a jidaigeki period drama in 1999.
According to a novel by 宇江佐真理 Ueza Mari (1949 - )

髪結い伊三次捕物余話 Kamiyui Isaji Torimono Yowa



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. - Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .


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4/19/2015

uguisubari floor

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. Interior Design - The Japanese Home .
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uguisubari うぐいす張 / 鴬張 / 鶯張り nightingale floor


CLICK for more photos ! 二条城 Jijo-Jo Castle, Kyoto

- quote
Lit. "nightingale floor".
Floor boards which rub together when walked on to produce a pleasant and delicate sound. This type of board flooring was used in the corridors, rouka 廊下, of some shrines jinja 神社, temples tera 寺, and palaces kyuuden 宮殿.
When the floor boards are dry the sound occurs naturally. However, from the early 17c onward, techniques were developed purposely to produce this sound in order that a person's approach would not go undetected. It was one of many methods devised to prevent the possibility of insurrection.

Perhaps the most famous extant example is in the Nijoujou Ni-no-maru Goten 二条城二の丸御殿 (17c), and the Chion-in Hondou Mieidou 知恩院本堂御影堂 (1619), both in Kyoto.
- source : JAANUS


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The corridor running along the rooms in the Ninomaru Palace has a specially constructed floor that makes a sound like that of a nightingale when you walk on it. This corridor is known as the Uguisu-bari corridor. This construction is actually an alarm system because it generates sound whenever anyone walks on the floor of the corridor, warning of the presence of an intruder even at night. The floor contains special fittings and clamps, called mekasugai that generate the sound.



There are a countless number of these clamps (about 12 cm long) located between the beams that support the floorboards of the corridor. There are two spike holes in each of the clamps and each hole has an iron spike in it. When someone walks on the corridor above a clamp, the clamp moves up and down causing the spike to rub against the clamp, producing a sound like the cry of a nightingale.
Incidentally, the Daihojo Hall at Chionin Temple, employed by the Tokugawa family for official affairs, has an Uguisu-bari corridor similar to that at the Ninomaru Palace.
- source : micro.rohm.com/en


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うぐいす張軋ませて来る跣足かな
uguisubari fumasete kuru hadashi kana

walking along
the nightingale floor
with bare feet . . .

Tr. Gabi Greve

山崎和枝 Yamazaki Kazue



source : 散歩日記X


. WKD : hadashi 跣足 (はだし) barefeet, barefoot .
- - kigo for all summer - -

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Mount Fuji hidden
in a nightingale floor -
Joys of Japan


Gabi Greve, April 2015



At 西本願寺 Nishi Hongan-Ji temple, Kyoto

御影堂と鶯張りの廊下でつながっている阿弥陀堂は西本願寺の本堂。
- source : うさぎの会旅行記


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. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .


. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .


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