4/12/2017

ondo dance game

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. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .
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ondo 音頭 popular song, music and dance



- quote -
The literal translation of "ondo" is "sound head." Kanji, or the Chinese characters used in the Japanese language, often have literal and abstract meanings, here the kanji for "sound" (音-on) having a more abstract meaning of "melody" or "music," and the kanji for "head," (頭) having a more abstract meaning of "beat," "base pattern." Hence "ondo" probably refers to a kind of "sound" or "beat pattern."
There are other names used to describe older Japanese genres of music. For example, "fushi" or "bushi" (節), with its literal meaning of "node," "knuckle," or "joint," refers to the nodes found in bamboo, usually found at a steady sequence. Thus "fushi" can also have the abstract idea of "sequence" to refer to notes and beats in a sequence, i.e., a melody.
An "ondo," however,
usually refers to a kind of song with a distinct swung 2/2 rhythm. This "swing" can be referred to as "ukare" in Japanese. "Ondo" is a term used in older Japanese genres, but it is still used today when referring to songs written in this swinging style. Sometimes the rhythm is NOT swung and it is played straight through. This is called "kizami".

Folk music and Obon
Part of the Japanese Obon celebration involves participating in the local community dance. The tradition of the Bon dance, or Bon odori (盆踊り), dates back a few hundred years, and it is usually accompanied by the local tune. In recent times, new music has been used for Bon dance accompaniment, including late enka hits and music written specifically for bon dancing. The "ondo" rhythm has always been common in Japanese folk music, but even the newer music written for Bon dances has been written in this style. ...
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


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Ondo ken おんどけん Dancing Ken Game

Actor Nakamura Utaemon IV as a Toad playing the Shamisen 
四代目中村歌右衛門の蛙,
Utagawa Kunimaro I (active about 1850–1875), signed Ikkokusai Kunimaro giga 一国斎国麿戯画


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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

草川の水の音頭も春祭
kusakawa no mizu no ondo mo haru matsuri

the sound
of water and plants
like a spring festival

Tr. Gabi Greve

. Fujita Sooshi 藤田湘子 Fujita Soshi .
(1926 - 2005)

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夜桜に青侍が音頭かな
yosakura ni aozamurai ga ondo kana

under cherry blossoms at night
the songs and dance
of young Samurai . . .


高井几董 Takai Kito

aozamurai (aosamurai) is a young Samurai of lower rank.
... a fifth-rank Samurai who serves for a royal family or a court noble.


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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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- - - - - #ondoken #ondodance #dancegame - - - -
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3/30/2017

Yanaka district

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. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .
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Yanaka 谷中 Yanaka district


source : ndl.go.jp/landmarks/edo/

根岸谷中辺絵図 Negishi Yanaka Map

Yanaka (谷中) is one of the few districts in Tokyo where the shitamachi atmosphere, an old town ambience reminiscent of Tokyo from past decades, still survives. Throughout the district, there is an air of nostalgia and a rustic charm. It is within walking distance of Ueno Park, and offers a sightseeing opportunity different from the metropolitan city feel of other parts of Tokyo.
A short walk from either Nippori Station or Sendagi Subway Station will take you to Yanaka Ginza, a shopping street which best represents the shitamachi flavor of the Yanaka District. Here, there are shops selling goods and produce, ranging from groceries and necessities to clothes and toys.
...
Another attraction of Yanaka is the Yanaka Cemetery, where the locals lay to rest in loving memory those who have passed away. Many of the tombs are elaborately decorated and nicely landscaped. Paths are well-kept and wide, presenting a good trail for a tranquil stroll. The grave of Tokugawa Yoshinobu, the last shogun of the Edo Period, is also situated within the cemetery.
The Sakura-dori Street, which runs through the center of the cemetery, is lined by cherry trees and attracts many visitors every year during the cherry blossom season. Yanaka Cemetery used to be part of Tennoji Temple, but was separated from it during the Meiji Period. The temple has a peaceful decor and atmosphere, and a big bronze Buddha statue sits on the left of its main building.
- reference source : japan-guide.com/e -

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Yanaka teramachi 谷中寺町 Yanaka temple town
There are more than 60 temples and shrines in Yanaka.

Chokyu-In 長久院

Daien-Ji 大円寺

Enmei-In 延命院

Enyu-Ji  延寿寺

Ichijo-Ji 一乗寺

Ishin-In 頤神院 

. Kannonji 観音寺 Kannon-Ji(台東区谷中5-8-28)- Gofunai 42 .

Kyoo-Ji 経王寺

Myoen-Ji 妙円寺

Renge-Ji 蓮華寺

Ryusen-Ji 竜泉寺

Suwa Jinja Shrine 諏訪神社

. Tahooin, Tahō-In 多宝院 / 多寶院 Taho-In - Gofunai 49 .
- 多宝院吉祥天 Yanaka Kichijōten 吉祥天 Kichijoten
台東区谷中6-2-35 / 6 Chome-2-35 Yanaka, Taitō ward

Tenno-Ji 天王寺

Yanaka Reien 谷中霊園 cemetery

Yofuku-Ji 養福寺

Zuirin-Ji 瑞輪寺 


- source : visiting-japan.com/en


Teramachi Art Museum
- reference source : teramachi-artmuseum.com -


under construction
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stone walls in yanaka
http://www.taitouboragai.com/yanaka.html

. Temple walls .

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谷中・根津・千駄木~
- reference source : qppp3.exblog.jp -

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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

reimu 霊夢
享和年中、ある武家の弟が、不思議な夢を見た。それは三方に生首が置かれ、その首に何番何番と記しがあった。その頃谷中の感応寺で富くじが行われていたので、夢に見た番号を買ったところ、富に当たったという。

tsue 杖
谷中の領玄寺に、日享上人が皮付きの桜の杖を刺した。この杖は桜の木になり、会式桜と称し、毎年旧10月の会式の頃に咲いた。

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- reference : nichibun yokai database -


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. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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- - - - - #edoyanaka #yanaka - - - -
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3/20/2017

Keian Uprising

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
. Persons and People of Edo - Personen .
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Keian jiken 慶安事件 The Keian uprising in 1651
Keian no hen 慶安の変


The Keian period, from April 1, 1649 till 1652



- quote -
.. a failed coup d'état attempt carried out against the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan in 1651, by a number of rōnin. Though it failed, the event is historically significant as an indication of a wider problem of disgruntled ronin throughout the country at the time. Masterminded by Yui Shōsetsu and Marubashi Chūya, the uprising is named after the Keian era in which it took place.

According to strategist Yui's plan, Marubashi would take Edo Castle, the headquarters of the shogunate, using barrels of gunpowder to begin a fire which would rage through Edo, the capital. In the confusion, with the authorities distracted by firefighting efforts, the ronin would storm the castle and kill key high officials.

At the same time, Yui would lead a second group and seize the Tokugawa stronghold in Sunpu (modern-day city of Shizuoka). Further action was planned for Osaka Castle and Kyoto. They timed their rebellion to take advantage of the death of Shogun Tokugawa Iemitsu, as his successor, Ietsuna, was still a child. The conspirators aimed to force the shogunate to relax its policies of seizing hans and dispossessing daimyōs, which under Iemitsu had deprived tens of thousands of samurai of position and income, adding them to the ranks of ronin.

Ultimately, however, the uprising failed when the conspirators' plan was discovered. Marubashi Chūya fell ill, and, talking through his fever dreams, revealed secrets which made their way to the authorities by the time the rebels were ready to move. Marubashi was arrested and executed in Edo; Yui Shōsetsu escaped that fate by committing seppuku, in Sunpu, upon finding himself surrounded by police. Several of the rebels committed suicide alongside him. The families of the conspirators as well were then tortured and killed by the authorities, as was usual at the time; several were crucified.

In the aftermath of the suppression of the uprising, the Shogunal Elders (Rōjū) met to discuss the origins of the uprising, and how to prevent similar events from occurring in the future. Originally, most of the Elders sought to take severe measures, including expelling all ronin from the city, but they were eventually convinced by Abe Tadaaki to take a more rational tack. He suggested reducing the number of ronin opposed to the shogunate, not through expulsion, but by introducing more favorable policies. In particular, he convinced the council that the shogunate ought to do away with the law of escheatment, and to work to help ronin settle into proper jobs. Forcefully expelling a great number of people from the city, he argued, would only serve to create more opposition to the government.

Far from being an isolated incident, the Keian Uprising was followed by an event the following year involving several hundred ronin, and another soon afterwards in Sado. Granted, these were not directly related, that is, none of the persons involved were the same, nor did they follow a single leader or organized ideology. Despite this, or perhaps because of it, it is significant to note how widespread the distaste for the shogunate was at this time, and the degree of the "problem" of the ronin throughout the country.



The tale was then retold in a novel, Keian Taiheiki (慶安太平記), and in a number of Kabuki plays, the most famous of which, also called Keian Taiheiki, was written by renowned playwright Kawatake Mokuami.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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Yui Shoosetsu - Shōsetsu 由井正雪 Yui Shosetsu (1605 - 1651)

- quote -
a military strategist, and leader of the unsuccessful 1651 Keian Uprising. Though a commoner, and thus not officially of the samurai class, Yui was known as one of the "Three Great Ronin" along with Kumazawa Banzan and Yamaga Sokō.

Born in Sunpu to humble origins, Yui is said to have been a talented youth; he was taken in by a number of rōnin from the area, who taught him recent history, and likely swordsmanship and military strategy as well.



As an adult, he found employment as an instructor at a samurai academy, teaching swordsmanship and related disciplines. But these academies, which could be found throughout the country, served not only the pure function of schools of martial arts; certainly, discipline, ethics, and related arts were taught as well. But the schools also served as social and intellectual spaces, in which political ideas were discussed, and grievances aired in a familiar environment where comrades and friends met. Students were almost exclusively members of the samurai class, but running the full gamut of rankings, from daimyo to ronin. As regulations were made stricter at this time, and many ronin expelled from their domains, the number of students grew dramatically.



He later opened a school of military strategy and martial arts in the Renjaku-chō neighborhood of Kanda in Edo, as well as an armorer's shop and ironworks. Here he continued to gain contacts, friends, and prestige among the ronin and others; one of them was Marubashi Chūya, a samurai and fellow instructor of martial disciplines and strategy, with whom he would plan the Keian Uprising some years later.

Beginning in 1645, Yui plotted a coup against the Tokugawa shogunate along with Marubashi, a small group of rōnin, and a number of their students. It was to take place in 1651, shortly after the death of Shogun Tokugawa Iemitsu, and would later come to be known as the Keian Uprising. Unfortunately for Yui and his comrades, the plot was discovered before it truly began. Yui was in Sunpu, preparing to execute a secondary series of attacks when Marubashi was arrested in Edo; surrounded by shogunate officials, he committed seppuku rather than be captured.


由井正雪の乱 Yui Shosetsu no ran

Following his death, the officials performed a variety of obscenities upon his body, and then proceeded to subject his parents and other close relatives to crucifixion. Yui Shōsetsu, though ultimately unsuccessful in his political plots, is a notable figure as representative of the growing political unrest in the early Edo period, as a result of strict laws put forth, and enforced, by the shogunate. He and his conspirators were only one of many groups throughout the country meeting in samurai academies and other venues, discussing politics and current events. Most, of course, did not act upon their beliefs as Yui and Marubashi did, but that discussion existed among a great number of people, despite, or perhaps because of the shogunate's strict enforcement of its laws, is significant.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


There is even a line of Sake rice wine named after Yui Shosetsu.




正雪 無量寿(むりょうじゅ)大吟醸 Shosetsu Muryoju brand

- 由比正雪にちなんだ酒銘 -
- reference source : tajima-ya.com/shousetsu. -

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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

................................................................................. Shizuoka 静岡県

Shoosetsu mushi 正雪虫 / Shoosetsu tonbo 正雪トンボ The Shosetsu Dragonfly
This animal begun to appear in Shizuoka after the violent death of Yui Shosetsu. They say his soul reincarnated to haunt the place of his birth and death.
It is also called カトンボ Chikara tonbo and begins to fly in early summer. It is only seen in Shizuoka!
This animal, a kind of kawatonbo 川とんぼ river dragonfly, is now extinct.


source : okab.exblog.jp/9934655


. tonbo (tombo, tonboo) 蜻蛉 dragonfly .
and
蜉蝣 kagero 正雪蜻蛉 紋蜉蝣 /白腹蜻蛉 /斑蜻蛉
Ephemeroptera
- kigo for early autumn -



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Marubashi Chuuya - Chūya 丸橋忠弥 Marubashi Chuya (? - 1651)
Yari no Chuya 槍の忠弥 Chuya with the long spear



(Ichikawa Sadanji as Chuya) 初代市川左團次の丸橋忠弥

- quote -
Chūya was a ronin (masterless samurai) from Yamagata, and instructor in martial arts and military strategy, most famous for his involvement in the 1651 Keian Uprising which sought to overthrow Japan's Tokugawa shogunate. He is said to have been a man of great strength and good birth whose distaste for the shogunate stemmed primarily from a desire for revenge for the death of his father, killed by the shogunal army at the 1615 siege of Osaka. The identity of his father is not clear, but may have been Chōsokabe Motochika.
... his weapon of choice became the Jūmonji Yari 十文字槍 a cross-shaped spear. The martial art of wielding the yari is called sōjutsu. ,
... Marubashi met Yui Shōsetsu, ...
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


(Ichikawa Sadanji) 初代市川左團次の丸橋忠弥

Chuya's grave at the temple
. 神霊山 Shinreizan  金乗院 Konjo-In  慈眼寺 Jigen-Ji .
豊島区高田2-12-39 / 2 Chome-12-39 Takada, Toshima ward





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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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- - - - - #keian #keianuprising #yuishosetsu #marubashichuya - - - -
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3/18/2017

Yarai district

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. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .
for Kagurazaka, see below
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Yaraichoo 矢来町 Yarai-Cho "Palisade quarter"
Ushigome Yaraicho 牛込矢来町

Now in Shinjuku ward.
For a definition of YARAI, see below.

Located on a plain up the slope of Kagurazaka. There are many publishing companies in the district.



In the Edo period, the estate of the lord Sakai Tadakatsu was located here.
Tadakatsu did not put a wall around his estate, since that was below his dignity and status, and just had a
take yarai 竹矢来 bamboo fence erected.
The Shogun Tokugawa Iemitsu 将軍家光 often came to visit him.
During the 寛永16年8月11日 Great Fire of Edo in August 1639 Iemitsu fled to this estate too. To protect the Shogun, Tadakatsu now had a wall erected and soldiers with spears were placed around the bamboo fence.
This fence later became a proud part of his estate and was not pulled down after the Shogun left...
And the region around that estate became known as Yarai shita 矢来下 "below the palisade".
In 1915 part of his large estate was abolished to make room for the main street of
牛込中央通り Ushigome Chuodori.

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- quote -
Sakai Tadakatsu 酒井忠勝 (1587 - 1662)
also known as Sanuki-no-kami, was tairō, rōjū, master of Wakasa-Obama castle (若狭国小浜城) and daimyo of Obama Domain in Wakasa Province in the mid-17th century.



As tairō, he was one of the two highest ranking bakufu officials in Tokugawa Japan from his elevation on November 7, 1638, through May 26, 1656.
- The "Nambu incident" and the the Dutch Ship Breskens
- Nihon Ōdai Ichiran is first published in Kyoto under the patronage of the tairō Sakai Tadakatsu in 1652.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


小浜藩酒井大老登城行列 Procession in honor of Sakai Tadakatsu


- source : wako226.exblog.jp

Shogun Iemitsu, Sakai Tadakatsu and more that 30 people clad as samurai walk up the
神楽坂 Kagurazaka slope "to Edo Castle".

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. Doctor Sugita Genpaku 杉田玄白 (1733―1817) .
He was born in Yarai in 1733 in the 牛込矢来屋敷 Yashiki of the Sakai Clan.



His memorial stone is in the park Yarai Koen 矢来公園.

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The Rakugo teller 古今亭志ん朝 Kokontei Shincho (1938 - 2001)
lived in this district and sometimes called himself Shinchō, 矢来町の旦那 The Patron of Yaraicho.

. Rakugo 落語 Comic Story Telling .



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yarai 矢来 palisade, fence
The old Chinese character was 遣(や)らい. 矢来 is a phonetically suited writing (ateji 当て字).
Tush a fence is not much higher than two meters.
maruta yarai 丸太矢来 were made from round wooden poles.
They were often installed for a temporary purpose and thus easy to remove.




ootsugaki 大津垣 Otsugaki, Lit. Ootsu fence // yaraigaki矢来垣,

- quote -
chousengaki 朝鮮垣, and chousen yarai 朝鮮矢来 (chosen yarai, Korean fence).
A type of simple bamboo fence. In 1711 a Korean mission traveling from Ootsu 大津 to Edo attracted so much attention that the government ordered people to erect fences along the road on which the Koreans passed. These fences were made with pieces of uncut bamboo tied on intersecting diagonals between two or three cross bars of split bamboo. Often the projecting bamboo at the top is cut to create a sharp edge.
- source : JAANUS -

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Kagurazaka - Kagurasaka 神楽坂 "Slope of the Music of the Gods"
Ushigome Kagurazaka 牛込神楽坂


. Ritual Kagura Dance 神楽 - Introduction.


牛込神楽坂 Ushigome Kagurazaka
Utagawa Hiroshige, 1840.

- quote -
... near Iidabashi Station. It has a shopping street at its center, lined by numerous cafés and restaurants.
The main road of Kagurazaka was once at the outer edge of Edo Castle, opposite the Ushigome bridge over the castle moat, and has always been busy because of this privileged location. In the early 20th century, the area was renowned for its numerous geisha houses, of which several remain today. Currently, Kagurazaka is experiencing a popularity boom due to its traditional atmosphere on the edge of modern Shinjuku ward, the existence of the original campus of Tokyo University of Science and its proximity to Waseda University. The area is also home to a number of publishing houses.
Kagurazaka
is also widely regarded as an important center of Japanese cuisine within the Kanto region. Several old and famous ryōtei are to be found in the winding back streets, often accessible only by foot. These provide expensive kaiseki cuisine, generally regarded as the pinnacle of Japanese food. They also allow diners to invite geisha to provide entertainment during the evening. Many shops in the area cater to this culture, especially selling kimono, Japanese sweets, and tea.

The Kagurazaka Awa Odori (阿波踊り) festival (originating in Tokushima) is held the fourth Friday and Saturday each July. The Kagurazaka connection to the dance goes back to the Edo era, when the Tokugawa daimyo donated the Ushigome Mitsuke. This is the fortified gate at the bottom of the Kagurazaka hill, on the opposite side of the canal. Today, only its foundations remain, just to the south of JR Iidabashi station.

Akagi Shrine (Akagi Jinja 赤城神社) was formerly at the top end of Kagurazaka. It was redeveloped with a new shrine and apartment complex, designed by Kengo Kuma and opened to the public in September 2010.
- source : wikipedia -



source : wako226.exblog.jp/15588590
江戸名所百人美女・神楽坂 Beauties of Edo / 歌川国貞 Utagawa Kunisada

- quote -
Kagurazaka has a long history.
In the middle of 16th century the Ogo clan who had ruled the southern foot of Mt. Akagi in Gunma prefecture moved to Kagurazaka and built the Ushigome Castle near the present-day Koshoji Temple. At that time Akagi shrine was transferred from Mt. Akagi. When Ieyasu TOKUGAWA moved to Edo (present-day Tokyo) in 1590, Ushigome clan (renamed from Ogo clan) served Tokugawa family and the Ushigome Castle was demolished.
After Tadakatsu SAKAI who became Tairo (chief minister) later built his residence in 1628 of the Edo period (1603 - 1868), lines of samurai residences stood along Kagurazaka Street.
Bishamonten Zenkokuji Temple 毘沙門天 善國寺 moved there in 1791 and after that an entertainment district was formed, which led to regional development as Hanamachi (Geisha district).
In the Meiji period (1868 - 1912) samurai residences were demolished and Kagurazaka developed as a commercial district. It came to flourish as one of the most bustling shopping and entertainment districts in Tokyo after Kobu Railway Ushigome station (present-day JR Sobu line Iidabashi station) was established in 1895. It was referred to as Yamanote Ginza and developed further because it avoided damages by the Great Kanto Earthquake in 1923.
Unfortunately the entire town was destroyed by the air raid in 1945 during the World War II but it was restored after the war and achieved the height of prosperity as Hanamachi in the 1950s. After that the number of Ryotei and Geisha decreased and it retains the traces of Hanamachi in a part of the town. Also it lost its position as an entertainment district to terminal stations such as Shinjuku and Shibuya. However it attracts people’s attention in recent years for example it was used as a location site for a drama in 2007, so it is crowded with many people as a sightseeing spot.
- source : ambassadors-japan.com/en-


source : wako226.exblog.jp/15588590
神楽坂毘沙門 Kagurazaka Bishamon - 歌川国貞 Utagawa Kunisada

. Bishamon-Ten . 毘沙門天 Vaishravana .


. Ushigome 牛込 - Introduction .


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雪ばんば縋る白洲の竹矢来
yukibanba sugaru shirasu no takeyarai

cotton flies
cling to the bamboo fence
around the white gavel court . . .

Tr. Gabi Greve

町田しげき Machida Shigeki

. yuki banba 雪婆(ゆきばんば) cotton fly .
- kigo for early winter -




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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Persons and People of Edo - Personen .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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3/08/2017

Ushigome

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. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .
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Ushigome 牛込
- former - Ushigome-Ku 牛込区 Ushigome ward


The area used to be an extensive pasture land for cattle already in the Asuka period around 700, hence the name, "herds of cattle".

- quote -
In an edict during the reign of Monmu Tennō 文武天皇 Emperor Monmu (701-704) a place variously referred to as Kanzaki no Gyūmaki 神崎牛牧 Kanzaki Cattle Ranch and Gyūnyūin 乳牛院“The Milk Institute” was established in the area in the vicinity of Moto-Akagi Jinja 元赤城神社 Old Akagi Shrine.
A branch of the Ōgo Ōgo-shi 大胡氏 Ogo clan from Kōzuke no Kuni 上野国 Kōzuke Province had been living in the Ushigome area since the 1300’s.
- source : japanthis.com/2013 -

- reference source : Akagi Shrine Homepage -




On March 15, 1947, the three wards of Yotsuya, Ushigome, and Yodobashi merged to create Shinjuku City.
. Shinjuku 新宿  .

- quote
Ushigome moat, a moat that exists between Iidabashi Station and Ichigaya Station. It forms part of the boundary between Shinjuku and Chiyoda wards.
Ushigome Mitsuke, one of the 36 mitsuke of the Edo Castle, existed on the Chiyoda side of Ushigome bridge.
Ushigome Haraikatamachi 牛込払方町 (p63)
Ushigome Yanagichō 柳町 - "Cow-Packed Willow Town"
- source : wikipedia

牛込馬場下横町 Ushigome Babashita Yokocho (present 喜久井町 Kikuicho)
Ushigome Go-Tansucho 牛込御箪笥町 "Village of Tansu makers" (see below)


牛込神楽坂 Ushigome Kagurazaka
Utagawa Hiroshige, 1840.


Ushigomebashi 牛込橋 Ushigome Bridge
This bridge led from Kagurazaka to Edo Castle. If you crossed the bridge you would arrive at Ushigome-mitsuke 牛込見附 Ushigome Approach and there you would see the Ushigome go-mon 牛込御門 Ushigome Gate. The bridge spanned Ushigomebori 牛込濠 Ushigome Moat. Today the moat is dammed up under the bridge and the Chūō Line runs under it.



The Weir of the River Kandagawa at Kagurazaka
Edo Meisho Zue 江戸名所図会 「目白下大洗堰」


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Bentenchoo 牛込弁天町 Ushigome Bentencho
. 多聞院 Tamon-In .
(新宿区弁天町100) Bentencho, Shinjuku


. Ushigome Kagurazaka 牛込神楽坂 "Slope of the Music of the Gods" .
軽子坂 Karukozaka Slope of the light workers"


. Ushigome Yaraicho 矢来町 "Palisade quarter" .

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牛込城 remains of Ushigome Castle

In 1553 a member of the Ōgo-shi 大胡氏 Ōgo clan switched allegiance from the Uesugi to the Hōjō and in return was granted dominion over the area stretching from present day Ushigome to Hibiya (ie; Edo Bay). The lord built a castle (fortified residence) somewhere in that area and took the place name to establish his own branch of the family and thus the Ushigome clan was born, 牛込氏 Ushigome-shi. The area is elevated so it would have been defensible. It also had a view of Edo Bay and so they could keep an eye on who was coming in and out of Edo-wan E江戸湾 do Bay.
... It’s not clear where the castle was located, but there is a tradition at Kōshō-ji 光照寺 Kōshō Temple that says the temple was built on the site of 牛込城 Ushigome Castle.
- source : japanthis.com/2013 -


- CLICK for more photos of the area !

. Ushigome Katsushige 牛込勝重 .
lord of 牛込城 Ushigome Castle.
and more about Tansumachi 箪笥町 / Koishikawa Gotansu Machi 小石川御箪笥町
In 1713, this area was entrusted to a local magistracy and a town was developed. The original name of the town was 牛込御箪笥町 Ushigome go-tansu machi.




Ushigome Go-Tansucho 牛込御箪笥町 "Village of Tansu makers"

春立つやぶらり牛込箪笥町
haru tatsu ya burari Ushigome Tansumachi

spring begins -
I take a leisurely walk in Ushigome
Tansumachi town


赤瀬川昌彦 Akasegawa Masahiko

. tansu 箪笥 / 簞笥 / たんす chest of drawers, Kommode .
箪笥町 Tansumachi, Tansucho


Tansumachi 箪笥町 / Koishikawa Gotansu Machi 小石川御箪笥町



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Kōitsu, 土屋光逸 Tsuchiya Koitsu (1870 – 1949)

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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

................................................................................. Asakusa 浅草

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Tanaka 田中幸右衛門 Tanaka Koemon

Tanaka Koemon lived in Ushigome Yamabushicho. One day he went to Asakusa and on his way back bought
金龍山の餅 special rice cakes from the famous shop Kinryuzan.
When he passed the gate 田安門 Tayasumon, he heard a strange voice call his name. He became afraid and threw the rice cakes in the direction of the voice, coming home empty-handed.

. Asakusa 浅草 district in Edo .
Now 市谷山伏町 Ichigaya Yamabushicho, Shinjuku



金竜山浅草餅本舗 Kinryuzan Mochi Shop in Asakusa, Nakamise
2 Chome-3-1 Asakusa, Taito, Tokyo
The Seikannon Sect of the Asakusa Temple carries the official name of Kinryuzan.



Tayasu-mon, Entrance to 北の丸公園 Kitanomaru Park
Two gated entrances survive from time of Edo Castle the Shimizu-mon and further north the Tayasu-mon.
The Tayasu-mom was the northern most gate of Edo Castle and consists of both a Korai-mon style outer gate and a Yagura-mon style fortified inner gatehouse with highly stacked stone walls forming a narrow defensive courtyard between the two.
An inscription on the outer side of the Tayasu-mon states the gate was constructed in 1685, making it one of the oldest surviving structures of the original castle.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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daihooshi 大法師 The Great Priest

In 牛込山伏町 Yamabushicho, a man named 朝倉八十五郎 Asakura Yasogoro wanted to put up residence. When he came to the Gate, there stood a very large priest. Yasogoro was not afraid and greeted him properly. Suddenly he felt something trying to sneek into his sleeve. When he looked back to the road, the priest had suddenly disapeared.

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dainaru hi 大なる燈 The Great Lantern

Around 1720 there was a Kannon temple called 伝通院 Dentsu-In. On the 25th day of the first lunar there appeared a strange light like a lantern above the temple, slowly moving from North to South. It then moved up to the sky and became a star which glowed and sparkled every night. On the 8th day of the third lunar month there was a large fire, covering the area from Ushigome to 千住 Senju. Later they found the bodies of many people who had died in the garden of this temple.

. 江戸三十三観音霊場 Pilgrimage to 33 Kannon Temples of Edo .
12 伝通院(文京区小石川3-14-6) Nr. 12 - Dentsu-In

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hikarimono 光り物 great light

At night on the 8th day of the 10th lunar month, a huge stone fell from the sky in Ushigome.
The year before, a similar stone had fallen down in 八王子 Hachioji.
There was thunder in the night and a light like a lightning.

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koku-un 黒雲 black cloud

In the year 1668, on the 6th day of the second lunar month, it suddenly begun to hail with a great thunderstorm.
Someone had died at Ushigome. When the body was brought to the burial ground for burning, a black cloud came down from the sky and covered the bones. From the could the bones of legs were danglilng down. Yes, many people have seen this.

寛文7年閏2月6日、急に雹が降り雷が鳴った時に牛込で人が死んだ。火葬場に送ったところ黒雲が舞い下り死骸を覆った。雲から死骸の足が垂れ下がり多くの人がそれを見た。


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kuruiji 狂い死 a mad death

In Ushigome there was a female doctor, who suddenly fell down with great pain and begun to cry and shout in the voice of a child in pain. Then the pain was like splitting the skull and tearing her heart and stomach open. She even tried to murder some children in her hospital and after three days of mad behavior she finally died. This doctor had often given medicine and help for abortions, and this was the revenge for her cruel deeds.


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neko Jizo 猫地蔵 Jizo and the Cat
Once in Edo there lived a man in Ushigome. He had a beloved cat, but the animal died and he was very sad.
Jizo Bosatsu appeared in his dream and advised him to go to the temple Jishoo-In 自性院 Jisho-In to see the high priest 鑑秀上人. He told him to have the statue of a cat erected.
This is now the Migawari Jizo, which takes on our illness and problems.
. neko Jizoo 猫地蔵 Neko Jizo. "Jizo with Cat" .


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Sarayashiki 皿屋敷 The Dish Mansion

Banchō Sarayashiki 番町皿屋敷 The Dish Mansion at Banchō
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

The story of the Sarayashiki is located in three places of Edo, one of them is 江戸牛込御門 Ushigome Gomon Gate.
The other is the Mansion of the lord of the domain of 雲州松江 Unshu Matsue and even 播州 Harima.

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- reference : nichibun yokai database -

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牛込に古き弓師や軒しやうぶ
Ushigome ni furuki yumishi ya noki shoobu

this old bow maker
at Ushigome -
iris under the eaves

Tr. Gabi Greve

中村吉右衛門 Nakamura Kichiemon


. WKD : noki shoobu 軒菖蒲 iris under the eaves" .
noki ayame 軒あやめ "iris under the eaves"
- - kigo for mid-summer - -

In 1689 Matsuo Basho (松尾芭蕉) crossed the Natori River and entered Sendai, Miyagi on The Narrow Road to Oku.’
It was the day they celebrate by converting their roofs with ‘Sweet flags’, or Calami’ (あやめ). He visited there around the time of the Sweet Flags Festival (あやめの節句) (5th day of Fifth Month, also called the Boy’s Festival), when sweet flags were displayed on the eaves of houses to drive away evil spirits, or they took “Shobuyu, or 菖蒲湯 (bath with floating sweet flag leaves)” baths. The leaves keep mosquitoes and snakes away with strong fragrance.




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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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2/22/2017

torimono and jitte

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
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torimono 捕物 police arrest - Glossary

. hanzai 犯罪 crime and punishment - Glossary .



十手・捕縄事典 - 江戸町奉行所の装備と逮捕術
名和弓雄 Nawa Yumio (1912 - 2006)
Dictionary of Jitte and Torinawa
Edo machibugyosho no sobi to taihojutsu


- reference source : melkdo.jp/item -

第1編 捕物捕具編

一 捕物道具と捕縛術
中国大陸から伝来
吉宗が改革した「十手捕縄扱い様」

二 打物捕具について
鼻捻の発生
鼻捻が捕者道具に転用された理由
現代の警棒にも活用
鼻捻の使い方
鼻捻の変遷
イギリスの警棒と同型

三 痿し(萎えし)の効果
痿し(萎えし)の発想
尖端部分の突起を強化
痿し(萎えし)の使い方
手貫紐の効用と握柄
「連れ返し」の技法

四 「十手」の出現と呼称の変遷 Jitte
「十手」に対する様々な名称
十手を「骨斧」と称した流派
「一角流」では「手棒」と呼称
「鐵簡」「卦算」の由来
「鐵挺」「銀棒」「鐵尺」の異名

五 各流古文書に遺された「十手」異称への考察
明大刑事博物館の「申渡覚」
實手、術手、十挺、十當、賢手、轉木
名称と文字由来への考察
木製鉄鈎十手
木製十手の鈎のつけ方

六 異形な十手への工夫と俗称
型稽古用木十手
鍛鉄製十手
鉄製十手の長短と各俗称
太刀もぎの鈎

七 鉄製・真鍮製十手も鈎のつけ方
棒身から鍵を鍛造の際に打ち出す法
棒身に角穴をあけ鈎の脚をかすめる十手の鈎のつけ方
蒲鉾形鉄環に鍵を鍛接し、棒身にとおす法
太鼓胴鈎
鈎鍔
割り開きかしめ
牛角鈎、三つ鈎、四つ鈎
通し焼きはめ鈎
サーベル形鈎

八 特殊な太刀もぎ鈎のつけ方
美しい形をした「刃鈎」
鈎幅をかえる様式
手錠十手の鈎
鈎の横手に火口があり火蓋のついた鈎
支柱を入れて補強した鈎
鈎の内側に鋸歯
鈎の角に小穴や小鈎
菊座の効用

九 十手の握柄と棒身
十手の握柄
握り柄の辷り止めの工夫
下級捕吏用の「藤皮巻」
「こより巻き」「牛の生皮」「牛なめし皮巻き」
「緋羅紗包み」と「鮫皮巻き」
不動明王の破邪降魔剣の五鈷杵を模した柄
与力・同心「銀流し十手」の握柄
十手の棒身と漆懸け
「銀流し」の手法と「銀張り」
「牛皮包み」「なめし皮包み十手」
鞘に入った十手三種
「十手棒身」に象眼あるものは贋物
銀流し与力・同心十手は疑物という説
十手棒身の先端について

十 「十手紐付環」と「房紐」
水平回轉環
紐付環の形状
朱銅について
十手の房紐について
与力・同心の十手の房紐の巻き方

十一 十手の握り方とその理由
十手の握り方
十手で打ち萎やす四打法
十手を巻いて打つ打法
手首二回転打法

十二 十手の分類と見分け方
十一種に分けられる十手
江戸町方与力の十手
江戸町方同心の十手
捕者出役の長十手
奉行所備え付けの「定寸十手」(坊主十手)
目明しの十手
火付盗賊改め方の十手
関東八州取締り出役代官手代・手付き十手
八州番太の十手
八州目明しの十手

十三 関西(京都・奈良・大坂)の与力十手の様式
関西の十手の特殊性
関西の与力十手と同心十手の見分け方
関西与力時射てと同心十手の長さの違い
関西、与力・同心十手の房紐について
大坂の捕方の十手房紐について

十四 十手の携行方法について
十手袋と袱紗
十手携行が公認される場合
八州取締り出役の代官手代・代官手付
八州の番太・楠流十手
八州の目明し(道案内)の十手
大坂の捕方の十手の携行法

十五 十手の製作者について
十手師と書き遺された専門職人
白銀師(錺り職人)
刀鍛冶
鎌鍛冶

十六 「十手捕縄術」の系譜について
「江戸町方十手捕縄扱い様」の系譜及び名和宗家に伝承の由来
「十手蒐集と研究」との出会い
「十手術」の魅力

十七 鉄刀と鉄鞭及び「鉄人流十手」について
鉄刀
鉄鞭
鉄人流十手

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十八 捕縛禁固具について
捕縄 - Torinawa - "capture-rope" - arresting cord
捕縄の長さ
早縄と本縄
捕縄の持ち方、巻き方、解き方
鈎縄
手鎖
早手錠
鍛鉄製早手錠

十九 警報用具について
呼子笛
太鼓、拍子木、板木

二十 握物捕具について
角手
南蛮鈎
手の内
まろほし

二十一 投物捕具について
目潰し具

二十二 鎖物捕具について
鉄鎖のつくり方
棍飛
万力鎖
鎖棒
龍吨(熊手)

二十三 捕物用照明具について
龕燈提灯
松明
籠火(毬火)
火串
御用提灯

二十四 防禦具について
着込
鉢鉄(額當)
鉄笠と鉄楯

二十五 長柄仕寄具について
鉄棒
寄棒
打込
袖搦
刺又
突棒
鎖奪い
刀奪い
南蛮棒

二十六 明治末期以後の捕具
実用新案特許の十手の出現
能海式手錠十手
台湾警察で開発された特殊警防具
マイティ・スティック(警棒型警戒用具)
分銅付き捕縄内臓手錠付きステッキ

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jitte, jittei 十手 / 實手 metal truncheon of an Edo policeman

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第2編 江戸時代の捕方と逮捕術

一 捕方の服装
町方与力の服装
町方同心の服装
関東八州取締り出役の服装
八州取締り出役の任免について
アメリカ西部保安官に似た八州番太

二 「江戸町方十手扱い様」の制定
「扱い様」制定の時期と理由
「破邪顯正の型」の四つの動き
十手を構える場合の手と脚の動き
「十手の構え」五型について
「双角の構え」四型について

三 「江戸町方十手捕縄扱い様」の十二型
型開始前の間合、礼法、抜刀、破邪顯正の型、構えについて
十手 一の型「四方拂い」
十手 二の型「柄とり」
十手 三の型「巻きおとし」
十手 四の型「左入身」
十手 五の型「右入身」
十手 六の型「連れがえし」
十手 七の型「座捕り」
十手 八の型「上段受け」
十手 九の型「閂捕り」
十手 十の型「柄返し」
十手 十一の型「咽喉輪捕り」
十手 十二の型「送り足拂い」

四 「江戸町方十手双角」の十八型
「双角の型」とは
「順手双角」一の型
「順手双角」二の型
「順手双角」三の型
「順手双角」四の型
「順手双角」五の型
「順手双角」六の型
「卍双角」七の型
「卍双角」八の型
「卍双角」九の型
「卍双角」十の型
「逆手双角」十一の型
「逆手双角」十二の型
「逆手双角」十三の型
「放鷹双角」十四の型
「放鷹双角」十五の型
「放鷹双角」十六の型
「放鷹双角」十七の型
「放鷹双角」十八の型

五 伝承・江戸時代の逮捕術と捕方
与力・同心・小者の出役振り
逮捕術の構えと捌き方
つかみ方・足の掛け方
組み伏せ方

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- quote -
A jitte (十手, literally "ten hands")
is a specialized weapon that was used by police in Edo period Japan. It is also spelled jutte.
History
In feudal Japan, it was a crime punishable by death to bring a sword into the shogun's palace. This law applied to almost everyone, including the palace guards. Due to this prohibition, several kinds of non-bladed weapons were carried by palace guards. The jitte proved particularly effective and evolved to become the symbol of a palace guard's exalted position.
In Edo period Japan
the jitte was a substitute for a badge, and it represented someone on official business. It was carried by all levels of police officers, including high-ranking samurai police officials and low-rank samurai law enforcement officers (called okappiki or doshin). Other high-ranking samurai officials carried a jitte as a badge of office, including hotel, rice and grain inspectors (aratame). The jitte is the subject of the Japanese martial art of jittejutsu.

Description and technique
Jitte may have a small pointed tip or blade attached to the tsuka and hidden in the boshin. Jitte could be highly decorated with all manner of inlays and designs or very plain and basic depending on the status of the owner and the jitte's intended use. Jitte could range in length from around 12 inches to over 24 inches. The modern jitte is about 45 cm (18 inches) long with no cutting edge and a one-pronged tine, called kagi, about 5 cm long starting just above the hilt and pointing toward the tip sentan.
A popular misconception is that the kagi is used to catch a sword. It could possibly be used for this purpose, but the hook's proximity to the hand would make it rather dangerous. When faced with a swordsman, a more likely use for the hook would be to capture and arrest the blade after blocking it with the boshin. The kagi's more common use is to hook into clothing or parts of the body like the nose or mouth, or to push into joints or other weak points on the body. It also could be used to hook the thumb while holding the weapon backwards, to allow different techniques such as punches and blocks, very similarly to a sai. The jitte can also be used in much the same manner as other short sticks or batons, to strike large muscle groups and aid in joint manipulation.



- - - - - Parts of the jitte
Boshin, the main shaft of the jitte which could be smooth or multi sided. The boshin of most jitte were usually iron but some were made from wood.
Sentan, the tip or point of the jitte.
Kagi, the hook or guard protruding from the side of the jitte. Jutte may have more than one kagi with some jitte having two or three kagi.
Kikuza (chrysanthemum seat), if the kagi is attached to the boshin through a hole in the boshin, the protrusion on the opposite side is called a kikuza.
Tsuka, the handle of the jitte which could be left plain, it could also be wrapped or covered with various materials.
Tsukamaki, the wrapping on the handle (tsuka). Materials such as ray skin same', leather, and cord were used for tsukamaki on jittes.
Kan, the ring or loop at the pommel of the tsuka. A cord or tassel could be tied to the kan.
Tsuba, a hand guard present on some types of jitte.
Koshirae. Jitte can occasionally be found housed in a sword type case hiding the jitte from view entirely, this type of jitte can have the same parts and fittings as a sword including:seppa, tsuba, menuki, koiguchi, kojiri, nakago, mekugi-ana and mei.

Other jitte types and similar weapons
Karakuri jitte
Marohoshi
Naeshi or nayashi jitte have no hook or kagi.
Tekkan
Hachiwara

- source : wikipedia -

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torinawa 捕縄 - "capture-rope" - arresting cord



- quote -
Edo Machikata Jitte Torinawa Atsukaiyo
the iron truncheon and arresting cord art practiced by the feudal Edo police, is one of the arts transmitted within Masaki-ryu Nakajima-ha. The art is broadly comprised of Ikkaku (forms practiced with a single jitte) and Sokaku (forms practiced with a jitte in one hand and a hananeji/naeshi in the other). The Sokaku forms are comprised of Namite Sokaku (Jujiken), Sakate Sokaku (Hachijiken), Manji Sokaku (Manjiken) and Hoyo Sokaku.

Namite Sokaku and Sakate Sokaku are mainly used to restrain a violent swordsman, and Hoyo Sokaku include special tactics such as throwing the jitte. Manji Sokaku is mainly comprised of techniques against polearms and chain weapons.

Edo Machikata Jitte Torinawa Atsukaiyo, the iron truncheon and arresting cord art practiced by the feudal Edo police, is one of the arts transmitted within Masaki-ryu Nakajima-ha. The art is broadly comprised of Ikkaku (forms practiced with a single jitte) and Sokaku (forms practiced with a jitte in one hand and a hananeji/naeshi in the other). The Sokaku forms are comprised of Namite Sokaku (Jujiken), Sakate Sokaku (Hachijiken), Manji Sokaku (Manjiken) and Hoyo Sokaku.

Namite Sokaku and Sakate Sokaku are mainly used to restrain a violent swordsman, and Hoyo Sokaku include special tactics such as throwing the jitte. Manji Sokaku is mainly comprised of techniques against polearms and chain weapons.
- source : masakiryu-nakajimaha.org -


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. hanzai 犯罪 crime and punishment - Glossary .

. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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2/20/2017

ninsoku yoseba Hasegawa Heizo

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
. Persons and People of Edo - Personen .
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ninsoku yoseba 人足寄場 rehabilitation facility for criminals
Hasegawa Heizoo, Hasegawa Heizô 長谷川平蔵 Hasegawwa Heizo / 鬼平 Onihei 




Yoseba bugyoo 寄場奉行 - Yoseba Bugyo Magistrate for the Yoseba
. bugyoo, bugyō 奉行 Bugyo officials in the Edo government .

The first Yoseba was constructed at Ishikawajima 石川島 Ishikawa Island in 1790.



- quote
PUNISHMENT — BOTH CRUEL AND ENLIGHTENED
What was the prevailing attitude regarding the purpose of punishment during the Edo period?
According to the noted legal historian Ishii Ryôsuke, “The penal philosophy of the Edo shogunate was unquestionably preventive. At the beginning, the philosophy of general prevention dominated, but after the adoption of the Osadame-gaki, it was increasingly concerned with particular prevention.”

This focus on particular prevention was especially apparent in the ninsoku yoseba, a special facility for criminals regarded as capable of rehabilitation. The ninsoku yoseba was opened in 1790 at the recommendation of hitsuke tôzoku aratemekata chief Hasegawa Heizô — who was also its first director — and the approval of rôjû Matsudaira Sadanobu. Its inmates were those convicted of minor crimes, as well as mushuku, people whose names had been removed from the family register and were excluded from lawful social activities (including people who had been banished for earlier crimes).
At the ninsoku yoseba, these people received lessons in ethics and vocational training of various types. Moreover, the inmates were actually paid for the products of their labors, a practice virtually unheard of at the time.
- - - - - more about
Law Enforcement in the Edo Period
- source : japanecho.com/sum/2004



According to their performance, inmates were allowed to wear robes with less and less white dots, as they reached the time limit to go free.
They were helped to find work in the line they had been trained at the Yoseba.


石川島人足寄場

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石川島灯台(人足寄場跡)
The Ishikawa Lighthouse memorial at the remains of the Yoseba, now in 佃公園 Tsukuda Park.

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Hasegawa Heizoo, Hasegawa Heizô 長谷川平蔵 Hasegawwa Heizo / 鬼平 Onihei 
長谷川 宣以 Hasegawa Nobutame (1745 - 1795) )
Childhood names: 銕三郎 Tetsusaburo, 銕次郎 Tetsujiro - Tettchan
Hitsuke Toosoku Aratameyaku 火付盗賊改役 chef of the police force for arson and theft




長谷川平蔵 ― その生涯と人足寄場
江戸の中間管理職 長谷川平蔵―働きざかりに贈る
滝川政次郎

- reference : books about Hasegawa Heizo -

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- quote -
Onihei Hankachō 鬼平犯科帳 Onihei Hankacho
is a popular series of stories and television jidaigeki in Japan. It has been based on a novel by 池波正太郎 Shōtarō Ikenami which started in the December 1967 issue of the light novel magazine "All Yomimono (ja)" published by Bungei Shunjū which published the first hard cover the following year. Onihei Hankachō developed into a series, and adaptations into TV programs, a film and theater followed.
A TV anime adaption aired in 2017.
The title character is Hasegawa Heizō, who started as a chartered libertine before succeeding his father as an heir and was appointed the head of the special police who had jurisdiction over arson-robberies in Edo. Nicknamed by the villain "Onihei," meaning "Heizō the demon," he led a band of samurai police and cultivated reformed criminals as informants to solve difficult crimes. Later, he was titled "Hitsuke tōzoku aratamekata" (police force for arson and theft), and opened an office at his official resident.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !



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- reference : edo ninsoku yoseba -

Edo and Paris: Urban Life and the State in the Early Modern Era:
Another institution in Edo connected with the maintenance of public order was a group of workhouses (ninsoku yoseba)

Men of Uncertainty: The Social Organization of Day Laborers in Edo:
The Ninsoku Yoseba of 1790

Punishment and Power in the Making of Modern Japan:
Hiramatsu Yoshiro, “Ninsoku yoseba no Seiritsu"


Rōya-bugyō 牢屋奉行 – Commissioners of the shogunal prison
- reference : wikipedia -

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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